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新疆土地利用/覆盖变化的区域气候效应
刘洛
学位类型博士
导师陈曦
2015
学位授予单位中国科学院大学
学位授予地点北京
学位专业地图学与地理信息系统
关键词土地利用/覆被变化 Wrf模型 气候效应 新疆
摘要随着经济与科技的发展和全球气候的变化,2000 - 2010年新疆土地利用和土地覆被的时空格局发生了巨大的变化,该变化显著地改变了地表覆被状态,并对区域气候要素及地表-大气之间的相互作用产生了重要的影响,进而改变了区域气候的分布格局。本文以新疆为研究对象,以基于TM遥感影像和地形图的土地利用数据为基本数据源,结合modis的植被覆盖度数据以及glass的地表反照率、叶面积指数和比辐射率数据为土地覆被数据,分析了新疆土地利用/覆被变化的时空变化与特征,在此基础上利用 WRF 模式模拟了2000 - 2010年新疆土地利用/覆被变化的区域气候效应,并从气温和能量平衡两方面揭示了新疆土地利用/覆被变化对其时空变化的影响。本文的主要结论包括: (1)2000 - 2010年新疆土地利用类型变化的总面积为1.46万km2,占全疆总面积的0.91%,其中土地利用变化的主要类型有灌丛开垦成农田、草地开垦成农田、裸地或稀少植被开垦成农田、退耕还草、裸地或稀少植被转化成草地和裸地或稀少植被转化成城镇和建设用地。全区年均植被覆盖度增加了0.003;年均地表反照率增加了0.006;年均叶面积指数增加了0.020;年均比辐射率增加了0.001。 (2)由于2000 - 2010年新疆的土地利用变化,全区年均气温下降0.009℃,气温日较差增加0.009℃。在不同的季节,土地利用变化对气温产生不同的影响,春季平均气温降低,气温日较差减小;夏季平均气温增加,气温日较差增加;秋季和冬季平均气温降低,气温日较差增加。土地利用变化导致年均气温升高的区域有阿尔泰山地、天山南坡山区、昆仑山区,而使得年均气温降低的区域有准噶尔西部山地、准噶尔盆地、天山北坡山区、塔里木盆地,其中,准噶尔盆地是新疆土地利用变化对气候影响最为显著的区域。在主要的土地利用变化类型中,仅裸地或稀少植被覆盖转换成城镇和建设用地引起年均气温上升,年均气温日较差减小。退耕还草引起年均气温下降,年均气温日较差增加,但气候变化不显著。而其他主要的土地利用变化均引起年均气温下降,年均气温日较差增加,且气候变化非常显著。 (3)2000 - 2010年新疆的土地利用/覆被变化使全年平均气温下降0.109℃,气温日较差增加0.022℃。在不同季节的土地利用/覆被变化对辐射强迫产生不同的影响,春季平均气温降低,气温日较差减小;夏季和冬季平均气温降低,气温日较差增加;秋季平均气温上升,气温日较差增加。土地利用/覆被变化使得各区域年均气温均呈现明显的下降趋势,同时引起大部分区域的年均气温日较差呈现明显的增加趋势。其中阿尔泰山地、准噶尔西部山地和准噶尔盆地的土地利用/覆被变化对平均气温的影响较为显著。昆仑山区是各个区域中气温日较差上升最显著的地区,而准噶尔西部山地的年均气温日较差下降最为显著。常绿针叶林的覆被变化对气候效应没有明显的影响。冰雪、裸地或稀少植被覆盖和水体的覆被变化仅在春季使平均气温减小,气温日较差均减小。落叶阔叶林和灌丛的覆被变化仅在春冬两季导致平均气温和气温日较差均减小。农田的覆被变化在春夏冬三季促使平均气温降低,但春季气温日较差减小,而夏冬季气温日较差增大。城镇和建设用地的覆被变化在春冬两季促使气温日较差均减小,春季平均气温减小,而冬季平均气温增加。 (4)2000 - 2010年新疆大部分主要的土地利用变化对年均气候的影响强度远远高于各类土地覆被变化对气候的影响强度。但由于各类土地覆被变化的面积远远大于所有土地利用变化的面积,因此土地覆被变化对全区区域气候的影响效应远远大于土地利用变化对全区区域气候的影响效应。同时土地利用变化和土地覆被变化导致的区域气候效应常常呈现出相反的趋势,但由于土地覆被变化对区域气候的影响效应大于土地利用变化的区域气候效应,因此土地利用/覆被变化的气候效应往往与土地覆被变化的气候效应一致,而与土地利用变化的气候效应呈现出相反的趋势。由此可见,在研究土地利用/覆被变化的区域气候效应的时候,不仅要考虑土地利用变化对区域气候的影响,而且可能土地覆被变化对区域气候的影响更为重要。
其他摘要The economic and scientific development and climate change led to the change of spatial and temporal pattern of land use and land cover in Xinjiang from 2000 to 2010, which had great impact on the regional climate elements and the interactions among them, and modified the spatial pattern of regional climate. This paper takes Xinjiang as study object, and extracts land use data from TM images and land cover data which include vegetation coverage fraction from Modis data and albedo, leaf area index and emissivity from glass data. The spatial and temporal pattern of land use / cover change is analyzed, and then it simulates the impact of land use / cover change on regional climate in Xinjiang from 2000 to 2010 with WRF model. Finally, this paper discusses spatial and temporal pattern of regional climate effect of land use / cover change. Several conclusions are obtained: (1) The area of land use change is 14,600km2 in Xinjiang from 2000 to 2010, which occupies 0.91% of the total area. The main types of land use change include reclamation of shrublands, reclamation of grassland, reclamation of barren or sparsely vegetated, returning grassland to cropland, conversion form barren or sparsely vegetated to grassland, conversion form barren or sparsely vegetated to urban and built-up. The annual mean vegetation coverage fraction, albedo, leaf area index and emissivity increased by 0.003, 0.006, 0.020 and 0.001 respectively. (2) Due to land use change, the annual mean temperature decrease by 0.009°C, and the annual mean temperature difference increase by 0.009°C in Xinjiang from 2000 to 2010. The annual mean temperature and the annual mean temperature difference both decreased in spring, while increased in summer. And the annual mean temperature was decreased, while the annual mean temperature difference was increased in the other seasons. The areas with increased annual mean temperature owing to land use change are the Altay Mountain, the southern slope of Tianshan Mountain and the Kunlun Mountain. The decreased annual mean temperature due to land use change are mainly located in the west of Junggar Mountain, the northern slope of Tianshan mountains and the Tarim basin. Only the conversion from barren or sparsely vegetated to urban and built-up leads to the increased annual mean temperature and the decreased annual mean temperature difference. And the returning grassland to cropland brought about the unobvious decreased annual mean temperature and the increased annual mean temperature difference. Nevertheless, the other land use change types significantly cause the annual mean temperature decreased and the annual mean temperature difference increased. (3) Due to land use / cover change, the annual mean temperature decrease by 0.109°C, and the annual mean temperature difference increase by 0.022°C in Xinjiang from 2000 to 2010. The mean temperature and the mean temperature difference both decreased in spring, while increased in autumn. And the annual mean temperature was decreased, the annual mean temperature difference was increased in summer and winter. Owning to land use/cover change, the annual mean temperature decreased in each zone, and the annual mean temperature difference increased in most areas. Due to land use/cover change, annual mean temperature has a significant change in Junggar Mountains and Junggar Basin. And region of Kunlun mountains is the most significant area with the increase in annual mean temperature difference, while the region of west of Junggar mountain is the most obvious area with the decrease in annual mean temperature difference. The land cover change in Evergreen Needleleaf Forest in response to climate effect is unobvious. The land cover change areas with the decrease in annual mean temperature and annual mean temperature difference are snow and ice, barren or sparsely vegetated and water in spring, while forest and shrublands in spring and winter. The land cover change in croplands lead to decrease the annual mean temperature in spring, summer and winter, and the decreased annual mean temperature difference in spring but the increased in summer and winter. Due to the land cover change in urban and built-up, annual mean temperature difference decreased in spring and winter, and annual mean temperature decreased in spring but increased in winter. (4) The impact strength of climate effect due to land use change is much higher than that due to the land use/cover change. But because of the area of land use / cover change is larger than that of land use change, the regional impact of climate effect due to land cover change is much higher than that due to the land use change. Meanwihle, the climate effects due to land use change and land use / cover change always show an opposite tendency, and the regional impact of climate effect due to land cover change is higher than that due to land use change, wherefore the regional impact of climate effect due to land use/cover change are coincident with land cover change and opposite with land use change. Consequently, not only land use change leads to regional climate effect, but land cover change is more significant to bring about regional climate effect.
学科领域地图学与地理信息系统
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.xjlas.org/handle/365004/14597
专题研究系统_荒漠环境研究室
作者单位中科院新疆生态与地理研究所
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
刘洛. 新疆土地利用/覆盖变化的区域气候效应[D]. 北京. 中国科学院大学,2015.
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