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中国干旱区18种豆科植物和短命植物囊果苔草的种子萌发特性研究
布海丽且姆·阿卜杜热合曼
学位类型博士
导师管开云 ; 张道远
2015
学位授予单位中国科学院大学
学位授予地点北京
学位专业植物学
关键词豆科植物 囊果苔草 种子休眠与萌发 结籽率 种子扩散 干旱区 荒漠
摘要豆科植物是西北干旱区重要植物类群,短命和类短命植物又是新疆准噶尔盆地特殊的植物类群。本研究选择干旱区18种豆科 (Leguminosae)蝶形花亚科(Pappilionoideae)植物和热带、亚热带的云实亚科 (Caesalpiniaceae)决明属决明 (Cassia tora)作对照,以及莎草科 (Cyperaceae)苔草属根茎型类短命克隆植物囊果苔草 (Carex physodes)为研究对象,采用室内控制、站点模拟、野外观测相结合的技术路线,从种子休眠解除-种子萌发-幼苗建成各环节入手,深入研究19种豆科植物种子萌发特性及其生态适应性及其差异;通过分析囊果苔草果实 (种子)扩散特征、种子萌发特性及其化感作用,综合揭示该种的生态适应性。主要研究结果和结论如下: 1. 19种豆科植物种子的含水量均较低,在4.04±0.6%-11.24±0.56%之间,但其活力却很高 (>90%),均属于正常型种子。根据储藏行为和休眠类型,19种植物种子可分为不休眠种子、高比例物理休眠而低比例不休眠种子、高比例物理休眠和低比例生理休眠种子三种类型。 2. 低温贮藏显著提高乌拉尔甘草 (Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch)和光果甘草 (G. glabra L.)种子的萌发率,而准噶尔无叶豆 (Eremosparton songoricum (Litv.) Vass.)、银砂槐 (Ammodendron bifolium (Pall.) Yakovl.)、苦豆子 (Sophora alopecuroides Linn.)、铃铛刺 (Halimodendron halodendron (Pall.)、苦马豆 (Sphaerophysa salsula (Pall.) DC.)和茧荚黄耆 (Astragalus lehmannianus Bunge)种子对低温储藏不敏感。浓硫酸处理显著提高种子萌发率 (>80%)。而对照的热带、亚热带植物决明 (Cassia tora L.)和温带干旱区的乌拉尔甘草、苦豆子、银砂槐、草木犀 (Melilotus suaveolens Ledeb.)、古尔班棘豆 (Oxytropis gorbunovii)种子一样,未经处理均不萌发。 3. 模拟夏季高温和干湿条件对种子的影响因种不同。根据种子对干热和湿热处理的敏感性,将具有物理休眠的11种豆科植物种子分为温度不敏感种子、湿热敏感种子、干热敏感种子、干热和湿热均敏感种子等4种类型。 4. 干旱区夏季的极端高温条件有利于种子物理休眠的解除,但低的降水量却限制了种子的萌发。苦马豆、准噶尔无叶豆、苦豆子、银砂槐和对照植物决明都属于湿热敏感种子。 5. 不同温度和水分条件的控制实验证明:光果甘草和银砂槐对水分和温度不敏感;而苦豆子、苦马豆和准噶尔无叶豆种子则属于敏感类型,这三种植物种子休眠解除对干燥条件的敏感性高于湿润条件的敏感性。 6. 沙埋处理种子的深度和沙埋时间对种子休眠解除和萌发的影响因种类不同各异;各种植物种子的休眠解除率在不同的沙埋深度下的差异性显著。 7. 生长于沙丘不同部位的囊果苔草的结种情况有差异,结籽率最高到86.96±2.40%,最低为64.01±2.67%。 8. 囊果苔草果实的泡状果囊既适应风力传播,也适应借助偶遇的降雨靠水力扩散,果实的扩散能力强于种子,不同的传播能力赋予果实、种子异质的生态功能。 9. 赤霉素、室内干藏和去除部分胚乳等处理方法不能使囊果苔草种子萌发,完全去除种皮和化学处理可以有效打破种子休眠,囊果苔草种子萌发适宜温度为25/10 ℃~35/20 ℃;低温贮藏可显著提高囊果苔草种子的萌发率,表明囊果苔草部分种子存在非深度生理休眠,而部分种子存在中度生理休眠,种子存在不明显的周期性休眠。 10. 囊果苔草种皮抑制物质是限制种子萌发的主要因素,其果囊对自身种子萌发存在抑制作用,而对其他植物种子的萌发的影响因种而异。
其他摘要Leguminosae is an important group of plants in arid area of Northwest China, ephemeral and ephemeroid species also a special group in Jungar Basin in Xinjiang. In this research, 18 arid Leguminosae species in Pappilionoideae and Cassia tora L.in Caesalpineae as control, and Carex physodes (Cyperaceae) which is spring ephemeroid rhizomatous sedge were chosen as research material. The dormancy breaking mechanism and the adaptation strategyof 19 Leguminosae species were investigated by adopting the combined technical design of interior control experiment, site condition-simulation and field observation. Also, the seed-set pattern, seed dispersal characteristics, seed germination and its ecological effects in natural community of the C. physodes were investigated to understand the ecological adaptation strategy of this species. The main results and discussions are as follows: 1. The seeds of 19 Leguminosae species had low soil moisture (4.04±0.6%-11.24±0.5%) but high viability (>90%), all the species had orthodox seeds. According to the storage behavior and germination characteristics, the seeds were classified to three types including: seeds with no dormancy, seeds with high level of physical dormancy and low level of no dormancy and seeds with high level of physical dormancy and low level of physiological dormancy. 2. Low temperature treatment significantly increased seed germination Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch and G. glabra L. However, it didn’t affect the dormancy breaking of Ammodendron bifolium (Pall.) Yakovl.), Eremosparton songoricum (Litv.) Vass.), Sophora alopecuroides Linn., Halimodendron halodendron (Pall.), Sphaerophysa salsula (Pall.) DC.) and Astragalus lehmannianus Bunge. H2SO4 scarification treatments were effective to break dormancy (>80%). The untreated seeds of tropical and subtropical control species of C. toraand arid land species intemperate zone as G. uralensis, S. alopecuroides, A. bifolium, Melilotus suaveolens Ledeb. and Oxytropis gorbunovii did not germinated. 3. According to the response to dry heat and wet heat treatment under summer high temperatures, there were four different types of seedsos 11 species, including: temperature-insensitive, wet-heat sensitive, dry-heat sensitive and both dry/wet-heat sensitive. 4. The summer extreme temperatures in arid area are effective to release seed physical dormancy, however rare precipitation is the main inhibitor of seed germination. The seeds of S. salsula, S. alopecuroides, A. bifolium, E. songoricum and control species of C. toraall belong to the wet-heat sensitive type. 5. The control study of different temperature and water conditions at room showed that: the seeds of the G. glabra and A. bifolium had no significant sensitive cycling to the monthly mean temperatures and moisture condition of field; Seeds of S. alopecuroides, S. salsula and E. songoricum were belonging to sensitive type, the sensitivity of those seeds at dry storage was higher than those at wet storage. 6. The effect of burial depths and burial periods to the dormancy breaking and germination of seeds were different, depending on species, the dormancy breaking percentage of seeds of species was significant difference at different burial depths. 7. The seed-set of C. physodes at different positions of sand dune were heterogeneous, the lowest seed-set was 64.01±2.67% and the highest was 86.96±2.40%. 8. The vascular pericarps of utricles are dispersed by wind and occasionally occurred rainfall in the study area. The pericarp has more strong dispersal ability than that seeds, the different dispersal ability of utricles and seeds have heterogeneousecological vitality. 9. No freshly matured seeds germinated over a range of temperature regimes after treatment with GA3, dry storage or removal of part of the endosperm. However, the higher percentage of seed germination occurred after removal of the pericarp and the chemical scarification. The optimal germination temperatures were ranged from 25/10 ℃ to 35/20 ℃. Cold stratification and sand burial significantly increased seed germination of C. physodes (<40%), indicated that the seeds had no marked seasonal dormancy, and part of the seeds had nondeep PD and other parts had intermediate PD. 10. The pericarp and seed coat inhibitor was a critical factor which has strong mechanical resistance to germination. The pericarp of C. physodes has inhibitory effect on the seed germination of C. physodes, but the pericarp of C. physodes has different effects on seed germination of associated species.
学科领域植物学
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.xjlas.org/handle/365004/14599
专题研究系统_荒漠环境研究室
作者单位中科院新疆生态与地理研究所
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
布海丽且姆·阿卜杜热合曼. 中国干旱区18种豆科植物和短命植物囊果苔草的种子萌发特性研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院大学,2015.
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