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艾比湖流域环境中重金属的污染和潜在生态风险评估
张兆永
学位类型博士
导师吉力力·阿不都外力
2015
学位授予单位中国科学院大学
学位授予地点北京
学位专业自然地理学
关键词重金属 污染和潜在生态风险 艾比湖流域
摘要针对近年来绿洲经济快速发展导致的环境中重金属含量增加和污染问题,以艾比湖流域为研究区,对农田土壤、博尔塔拉河河水、表层底泥沉积物、河岸土壤、艾比湖干涸湖底土壤和流域大气沉降中重金属的分布、来源、污染状况、潜在生态危害和健康风险状况进行了较系统、综合的研究。主要结论如下: (1)统计分析表明研究区农田土壤中8种重金属的含量均未超过国家二级标准值。但其平均值和最大值均高于新疆土壤背景值,表明该地区绿洲经济发展对农田土壤中重金属含量有负面影响。 (2)博尔塔拉河河水中7种重金属的含量相对较低,但Hg、Cd、Pb和Cr的最高值均高于地表水质量类标准和WHO引用水健康建议标准;博尔塔拉河表层底泥和河岸土壤中重金属含量明显高于河水。总体看博尔塔拉河河水、底泥和河岸土壤中重金属污染和潜在生态风险均较小未对河流及河岸土壤环境健康造成明显的危害。 (3)艾比湖干涸湖底表层沉积物中8种重金属的含量均未超过国家二级标准值,但其平均值和最大值均高于新疆土壤背景值。地积累指数评价和潜在生态风险评估表明,艾比湖表层沉积物中重金属的Cd、Hg和Pb的污染指数较高、为主要的潜在生态风险因子。 (4)艾比湖流域年降尘通量平均值为298.23 g.m-2,以3月份最大,大气降尘中7种重金属的平均含量和最大值均未超过土壤环境质量二级标准,含量较低,但Pb、Cd和Hg的污染程度相对较高;其中在2013年9月到2014年3月污染较严重,与流域冬季采暖活动污染物排放密切相关。健康风险评价表明,儿童通过手-口途径摄入Pb的暴露风险高于其他重金属。
其他摘要Based on the increased contents of heavy metals in the environment as well as the pollution problem in Xinjiang oases with the rapid development of economy in recent years, herein, with Ebinur Basin as the research area, the distribution, sources, pollution status, potential ecology and health risks of heavy metals in water body, surface sediments, nearby soil of Bortala river, the dry sediments of Ebinur and the atmosphere dust deposition of the basin have been systematically investigated. The conclusions are as follows: (1) Descriptive statistics analysis showed that the contents of 8 kinds of heavy metals in the research area do not exceed the limitation values of class II, Soil Quality Standard of China, but the average and maximum values of the heavy metals are higher than the background values of Xinjiang, suggesting that the local economic development in this region has negative influence on the heavy metal contents in the farmland. (2) The contents of 7 kinds of heavy metals in the surface water of the Bortala River are relatively low, but the maximum values of Hg, Cd, Pb, and Cr are all higher than the limitation values of the Second Surface Water Quality Standard and the Drinking Water Quality Standard values of WHO. This research also showed that the heavy metal contents in the surface sediments of the Bortala River and the nearby soil are significantly higher than that in the river water. In general, the pollution and potential risks of heavy metals in the river water, surface sediments and the nearby soil of Bortala River are relatively low and do not have harmful effect on the environment. (3) The contents of 8 kinds of heavy metals in the surface sediments of the Ebinur are all lower than the limitation values of class II, Soil Quality Standard of China, but the average and the maximum values are all higher than the background values of Xinjiang. The geo-accumulation index and the potential risks assessment showed that the pollution indexes of heavy metals Cd, Hg, and Pb in the sediments are relatively higher and these heavy metals are the main potential ecology risk factors. (4) The average annual dust flux in Ebinur Basin is 298.23 g.m-2, and it reached the maximum in March. The research showed that the average and the maximum values of 7 kinds of heavy metals in the atmosphere dusts deposition in Ebinur Basin are relatively low and do not exceed the limitation values of Class II, Soil Quality Standard of China, while the pollution extents of heavy metals Pb, Cd, and Hg of the atmosphere dusts deposition are relatively higher than others. Results showed that the heavy metal pollution was very serious during September 2013 to March 2014, which is closely related with the pollutants from the heating activity in winter in the basin. Health risk assessment of heavy metals showed that the exposure risk of Pb through hand to mouth way intake by the children in the basin is much higher than others.
学科领域自然地理学
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.xjlas.org/handle/365004/14600
专题研究系统_荒漠环境研究室
作者单位中科院新疆生态与地理研究所
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
张兆永. 艾比湖流域环境中重金属的污染和潜在生态风险评估[D]. 北京. 中国科学院大学,2015.
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