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塔里木河流域典型山区径流组分特征及其水汽来源研究
孙从建
学位类型博士
导师李新功 ; 陈亚宁
2015
学位授予单位中国科学院大学
学位授予地点北京
学位专业自然地理学
关键词塔里木河流域 稳定同位素 径流组分 降水 水汽来源
摘要本研究基于全球气候变化及其对于区域水资源所产生的严重的影响,选取塔里木河流域典型山区,以径流的组分构成为主要研究对象,结合过去50年的气象和水文数据以及水样采集,应用同位素技术结合水化学特性定量的分析了各源流区的径流组成及贡献率,探讨了各源流区域对于气候变化的敏感性的响应。同时利用后向轨迹模拟结合环境同位素技术对于流域水资源原始输入项——水汽进行了源地及权重的分析,探讨了流域水汽的来源以及局地内循环对于当地降水的影响。 通过以上的研究发现: (1) 塔里木河流域山区降水、地表河水都呈现出较大的波幅区间;降水的氢氧稳定同位素时空差异明显,表现为夏季高冬季低的特性。降水同位素温度效应明显。河水中δ18O和δ2H值时空差异明显,源流区河水的δ18O和δ2H值低于塔里木河干流河水的δ18O和δ2H值。丰水期河水δ18O和δ2H值低于枯水期δ18O和δ2H值。塔里木河流域地下水氢氧同位素值也表现出较为显著的季节性差异,表现为夏季高秋冬季低。对塔里木河流域不同水体的水化学分析结果显示,降水的水化学性质较为稳定,矿化度较低,空间差异性较小。流域中地表河水的矿化度变幅较大,干流区与源流区、丰水期与枯水期矿化度差异明显。塔里木河流域的地下水表现出较为稳定的水化学特性,流域中地下水的化学性质与塔里木河流域丰水期河水相似。 (2) 塔里木河流域水汽主要来源于西风带,里海及巴尔喀什湖地区为其主要的水汽源地,北冰洋水汽在冬季对流域影响较大,主要影响流域北部,来自阿拉伯海及印度洋的水汽侵扰流域西南部,来自盆地内部的局地水汽在融雪期对流域影响明显。利用塔里木河流域降水中氘盈余值结合当地降水量,计算了局地水汽对于当地降水的影响贡献率。结果表明沙里桂兰克站来自流域内部的局地内循环水汽对于降水的贡献率为15.7%。协和拉站降水中再循环水汽的贡献率约为22%。江卡站降水中有18.1%来自于水汽再循环。开都河流域的黄水沟站其降水中的内循环比重为19%。对比发现阿克苏河流域的库玛力克河受到水汽再循环的影响最大,黄水沟流域次之,托什干河降水中内循环水汽比重最小。 (3) 基于丰水期与枯水期两次全流域采样的同位素径流分割的结果,发现塔里木河流域河水中融冰融雪水的贡献率在7.1%~39.4%之间;降水对于整个塔里木河流域河水的贡献率在12.56%~47.4%之间;地下水(包含裂隙基岩水)在整个塔里木河流域的径流组成中占有很大的比例,其比重超过了50%。流域内各河段的丰水期(5月)径流中地下水的比重普遍枯水期(9月)(阿克苏河除外)。开都河与提孜纳甫河的径流中各水源的贡献率在两个不同采样时间段内差异性很小,径流组分变化不大。而阿克苏河与渭干河的径流组分却表现出明显的季节差异性。 (4) 径流分割的结果显示,地下水(包含裂隙基岩水)对于阿克苏河流域径流的贡献最大,贡献率在46%-54%之间;高山冰雪融水对于阿克苏河流域的径流贡献率也很大,全年中有36%-36%的径流来自于此;季节性融雪水对径流的贡献约为5%-8.8%。降水对于径流的贡献率大约为10%。托什干河的径流组分特征与库玛力克河径流组分特征相近似,其中地下水(包含裂隙基岩水)的贡献率最大,全年中有46%的径流来自于地下水的补给,库马力克河年径流中,融雪水与降水所占年径流的比例要高于托什干河,但是托什干河年径流中(尤其是夏季径流)冰川融水的比重要高于库马力克河。 (5) 提孜纳甫河流域的主要水源来自于高山降水,大约42%的径流来自于高山降水补给,地下水(包含裂隙基岩水)也是提孜纳甫河径流的重要组成部分,41%的径流来自于地下水补给。在提孜纳甫河全年的径流中,约有17%来自于融冰雪水,融冰雪所占的比例不大。 (6) 地下水(包含裂隙基岩水)在黄水沟径流中发挥着极其重要的作用,全年中有56%的径流来自于地下水及裂隙基岩水的补给;高山冰雪融水对于黄水沟流域的径流贡献率也很大,全年中有29.5%的径流来自于此,其中冰川融水的年径流贡献率为19.5%,季节性融雪水对径流的贡献约为10%,降水在年径流中的比重大约为14.5%。 (7) 过去50年,塔里木河流域经历了由暖干向暖湿转变的过程,整个流域气温呈现显著上升,且增温速度基本一致。流域内年降水量也表现出显著的增加,但空间差异较大,过去半个世纪以来开都河流域降水量增加速度最快,而流域西南部的提孜纳甫河流域降水量增加速度较慢。在流域气温和降水增加的背景下,塔里木河流域主要源流出山口径流量也呈现出显著增加,其中阿克苏河流域径流的增加幅度最大。结合同位素径流分割的结果显示,阿克苏河流域与开都河流域径流受气温变化影响较大,提孜纳甫河由于径流中降水比例较大,流域内年降水的波动可能对径流造成较大的影响。
其他摘要Because of global climate change and its significant impact on regional climate and water resources, Stream-flow components and precipitation vapor sources were studied in typical mountain regions of the Tarim River basin (TRB), northwest arid area of China. We analyzed on the streamflow components using a model of isotope hydrograph separation and computed the contributions of different water sources to streamflow throughout the year. We evaluated the sensitivity of the Aksu River to climate change based on the meteorological and hydrological data during the past 50 years. Using the backward trajectory model, we also identified the precipitation vapor sources and its contribution to streamflow. (1) The isotope values of precipitation, river water, and groundwater in the mountain areas of the TRB show a larger range. Water isotopic composition varies significantly in time and space within the basin. Precipitation δ18O and δ2H show a typical trend with high values in summer and lower values in winter, indicating the temperature control the precipitation isotopic composition. River water δ18O and δ2H in the mountain is higher than that in the plain area, and is also higher in September 2011 than in May 2012. The chemical characteristic of precipitation, river water, and groundwater also shows significant differences in time and space within the basin. (2) Water vapor is mainly transported to TRB by the westerlies. The Caspian Sea and the Balkhash Lake are the main sources of water vapor. Water vapor from the Arctic Ocean also influences the TRB in winter. Water vapor from the Arabian Sea and Indian Ocean can influence the southwest area of the TRB. Water vapor from the interior of the basin is important during melting season. Based on the deuterium excess parameter, we caculated the recycled fraction of precipition , our results showed the recycled fractions at Xiehela, Shaliguilanke, Jiangka, and Huangshuigou are 15.7%, 22%, 18.1%, and 19%, respectively. (3) Results show that the contribution of glacial and snow melt-water to stream flow varies from 7.1% to 39.4%, and the contribution of precipitation varied from 12.56% to 47.4% in the rivers of TRB. Groundwater contributions in most rivers are more than 50%. This indicates that groundwater is the major recharge source of the Tarim River. Groundwater had a larger proportion in May than in September in all the rivers except for the Aksu River. While the Kaidu and Tiznafu Rivers have a relatively stable runoff composition in different seasons, the runoff composition of in the Aksu and Weigan Rivers varies seasonally. (4) The variation ranges of the runoff from groundwater, glacier meltwater, snow meltwater, and precipitation in the Aksu River are 46%–54%, 31%–36%, 5%–8.8%, and 10%, respectively. Results from isotope hydrograph separation analysis showed that groundwater made the greatest proportional contribution to the streamflow of the Kumalak River throughout the summer and autumn of 2012. The streamflow compositions in Toxkan River are similar as in the Kumalak River. Snow meltwater and precipitation had greater proportional contribution to the streamflow in the Kumalak River. The recharge from the glacier melt water in the Toxkan River is much greater than that in the Kumalak River, especially in summer. (5) Based on isotope hydrograph separation, melt-water, groundwater, and rainfall contribute 17%, 41%, and 42% of the annual stream flow, respectively, in Tizinafu River. (6) Based on isotope hydrograph separation, melt-water, groundwater, and rainfall contribute 29.5%, 56%, and 14.5% of the annual stream flow in Huangshuigou River, respectively. (7) We examined climate change in the last 50 years using meteorological data from 1957 to 2010. Results indicated that temperature and precipitation in the entire basin exhibited significant increase trends. The climate change in the TRB showed a significant spatial difference. Based on the results of isotope hydrograph separation, we found the streamflow of the Tizinafu Rive is more sensitive to precipitation change. The streamflow of the Aksu River and Kaidu River is more sensitive to temperature change.
学科领域自然地理学
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.xjlas.org/handle/365004/14604
专题研究系统_荒漠环境研究室
作者单位中科院新疆生态与地理研究所
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
孙从建. 塔里木河流域典型山区径流组分特征及其水汽来源研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院大学,2015.
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