EGI OpenIR  > 研究系统  > 荒漠环境研究室
应用耐盐混合藻固定烟气中的CO2和处理重金属废水研究
杨建英
学位类型博士
导师潘响亮
2015
学位授予单位中国科学院大学
学位授予地点北京
学位专业生态学
关键词混合藻 固定二氧化碳 重金属
摘要减少二氧化碳(CO2)排放是全球环境演变的重要议题。煤炭是CO2主要的排放源之一,其中燃烧排放的烟气中含有的SO2、NOx、烟尘等有害成分增加了大气污染的危害。煤炭占中国一次能源利用的70 %,减少煤炭燃烧烟气中的CO2及其他有害气体的排放具有非常重要的意义。 植物的光合作用是固定并减少CO2的重要方法。藻类作为水生生态系统的初级生产者,因其具有个体小、生长速度快、代谢迅速等优势,相比较陆生植物而言,固定CO2速率较高。此外,藻体在重金属污染环境的修复领域也具有很好的应用前景,利用藻活细胞处理含重金属废水也正逐步成为生物法去除重金属离子的发展方向。 本研究从干旱区一微咸水湖中采集并培养具有耐盐,且环境适应性能较强的混合藻,对比光照、盐度、钙浓度等环境因素对藻生物量、叶绿素含量及叶绿素荧光参数Fv/Fm及对空气中CO2固定的影响,采用优化因子的控制条件进一步培养混合藻,并构建藻的两种生物反应器,并分别用于煤烟气中的CO2、SO2及NOx等气体的固定并处理尾矿淋滤液中的重金属。通过测定煤燃烧反应器运行中藻生长参数、烟气中CO2、SO2、NOx的去除率及尾矿淋滤液反应器中的重金属浓度变化,探讨混合藻固定CO2及去除尾矿淋滤液中重金属的机理,以期为混合藻应用于固碳及重金属污染区域的生物修复提供理论依据。 环境因素影响的结果显示,当光照强度为200 μmol·m-2·s-1时,该混合藻生长迅速,生物量及叶绿素含量分别达到最大32.75 g·L-1和4.64 mg·L-1,且固定空气中CO2的效果也较好。该混合藻生长和固定空气中CO2的适宜条件为200 μmol·m-2·s-1的光照强度、1.2 %的盐度、100 mg·L-1的钙浓度。 该混合藻在盐度为0.5 %、1.2 %时能较好的生长。尤其当盐度为1.2 %时,其生长状态好于0.5 %盐度。而当盐度达到3.5 %时,即明显抑制混合藻的生长。该藻在钙浓度为0 - 400 mg·L-1范围内均可生长。0 - 100 mg·L-1浓度时,随着钙浓度升高,藻生长及固定空气中CO2趋势与钙浓度呈正相关关系。在优化条件200 μmol·m-2·s-1的光照强度、1.2 %的盐度、100 mg·L-1的钙浓度条件下,进一步培养该混合藻构建了两类反应器。煤燃烧反应器运行结果显示,该混合藻对煤烟气中的CO2、SO2、NOx去除效果较好。添加了100 mg·L-1的Ca(Ⅱ) 对藻生长及去除烟气中CO2、SO2、NOx等气体成分有促进作用;且通入烟气中含10 % (v/v) CO2 时,去除效果最佳。在处理尾矿淋滤液的实验中,结果显示混合藻对Ca(Ⅱ) 及其中重金属、类金属As具有较高的耐受性。三个反应器(Ⅰ、Ⅱ、Ⅲ)中尾矿淋滤液中所含重金属及Ca(Ⅱ) 浓度不同,在配位络合、藻钙化等化学作用下,各反应器中重金属的去除率有所差异。相比淋滤液中总As的去除率(52 - 73 %),Cd和Pb的去除率均较高,其均值范围达到91 % - 93 %。 由上可见,本研究筛选出的耐盐混合藻对烟气中CO2、SO2、NOx 成分具有较强的吸附能力,并能较易去除尾矿淋滤液中重金属及类金属,为废气消减及含重金属的废水生物修复的示范应用提供了数据支持和理论基础。
其他摘要Reducing Carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions is a global issue. Coal is one of important sources of CO2 emissions. Coal-fired flue gas, which contains sulfur dioxideone (SO2), nitrogen oxide (NOx), soot and other harmful ingredients, aggravates the complex of the atmospheric pollution. Due to 70 % of China energy primary use is coal, it is key to abate the flue gas CO2 from burning coal. The photosynthesis of plants is an important method of immobilization and reducing CO2. Algae are primary producers in aquatic ecosystems. It is used to absorb CO2 with high fixation rate thanks to its individual small, fast growth, rapid metabolism and other advantages. Furthermore, algae living cells is also useful to reduce heavy metals contained in filtrate of tailings. In this study, the mixed algae selected from brackish water lake are tolerant and adaptable to salt environment. Environmental factors such as light, salinity, calcium were observed on algae growth and CO2 fixation rate. Based on the optimum cultured for algae, two algae bioreactors were further built to fix coal-fired flue gas CO2, SO2, NOx and to reduce heavy metals in filtrate of tailings, respectively. We explore the mechanism of algae fixing CO2 from burning coal and reducing heavy metals in tailings in order to contribute to theoretical information for cutting these pollutants of air and water. Results of environmental factors indicated that the mixed algae can growth rapid, biomass and chlorophyll content eventually reached a maximum of 32.75 g·L-1 and 4.64 mg·L-1 respectively, when the light intensity was 200 μmol·m-2·s-1, and the fixation of CO2 in the air was high. The mixed algae in the salinity of 0.5 % and 1.2 % salinity grew better, especially at 1.2 % salinity. Salinity of 3.5 % inhibited the growth of the mixed algae significantly. The mixed algae can be grown in the 0 - 400 mg·L-1 range of calcium concentration. When Ca(Ⅱ) concentration was between 0 - 100 mg·L-1 , there was a positive correlation between trends in algae growth and the fixation of CO2 in the air and the calcium concentration. In summary, the environment suitable for the mixed algae growth and the fixation of CO2 in the air is 200 μmol·m-2·s-1 of light intensity, 1.2 % salinity, the calcium concentration of 100 mg·L-1. Then, the mixed algae cultured in the above optimized environment were used to build two bioreactors. Coal combustion reactor operation results showed that the removal efficiency of the mixed algae on coal-fired flue gas CO2, SO2, NOx was well. Added 100 mg·L-1 Ca(Ⅱ) promoted on the mixed algae growth and removal of flue gas CO2, SO2, NOx, and when the flue gas containing 10 % (v/v) CO2 , removal results was the best one. It was also shown that the mixed algae well tolerated to tailings leachate of Ca(Ⅱ) and other heavy metals, and good for total As removal capability. Due to the differences of heavy metals and Ca(Ⅱ) concentration inⅠ, Ⅱ, Ⅲ three bioreactors, by ligand complex, calcify and other effects on heavy metals removal vary. Removal of all three reactors are the best Cd and Pb (mean 91 % - 93 %), total As removal rate of all three reactors reached about 52 - 73 %. Comprehensive analysis indicated that the mixed algae could be used in the fixation of flue gas with CO2, SO2, NOx and other gases and the removal of heavy metals in the filtrate tailings. This study highlights that that the mixed algae had a good ability to abate air pollutants and to biological repair heavy metals in waste water.
学科领域生态学
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.xjlas.org/handle/365004/14610
专题研究系统_荒漠环境研究室
作者单位中科院新疆生态与地理研究所
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
杨建英. 应用耐盐混合藻固定烟气中的CO2和处理重金属废水研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院大学,2015.
条目包含的文件
条目无相关文件。
个性服务
推荐该条目
保存到收藏夹
查看访问统计
导出为Endnote文件
谷歌学术
谷歌学术中相似的文章
[杨建英]的文章
百度学术
百度学术中相似的文章
[杨建英]的文章
必应学术
必应学术中相似的文章
[杨建英]的文章
相关权益政策
暂无数据
收藏/分享
所有评论 (0)
暂无评论
 

除非特别说明,本系统中所有内容都受版权保护,并保留所有权利。