EGI OpenIR  > 研究系统  > 荒漠环境研究室
南疆高产棉花个体发育和群体调控技术研究
吐尔逊江·买买提
学位类型博士
导师田长彦
2015
学位授予单位中国科学院大学
学位授予地点北京
学位专业生态学
关键词南疆棉花 高产群体 个体 调控技术
摘要棉花是新疆的主要大宗农作物。新疆从棉花种植优势区,逐步发展成为国家重要的生产基地,棉花产业的发展关系着棉花下游产业的生存。新疆是中国最大的优质棉产区,对保障国家棉花安全发挥着重要的支撑作用。当前,国际棉花供过于求,新疆棉花产业“提质增效”成为重要发展方向。新疆是全球单产最高的棉产区,优良品种、精播技术、滴灌技术、水肥一体化技术、机械化采摘技术等新技术的推广应用,为棉花单产效益提高提供了有力支撑。新疆棉花大面积高产机理探索,为新疆棉花持续高产提供了理论支持,但是相关研究缺乏个体发育特性的系统性研究,对于高产群体建成缺少生态学、生理学的系统研究与理论支持。本研究以为新疆棉花生产提供可持续高产理论和技术为目标,以新疆农科院经济作物研究所在新疆兵团农一师十六团高产创建实现的公顷皮棉产量4000kg的高产棉田为研究平台,以高产品种10-108-3和AY4等为材料,大田采用根系原位观测方法,并用人工气候室漂浮栽培方法与之进行对照,从棉花的群体光合特性、叶面积指数,干物质分配规律,以及个体的营养器官、生殖器官发育规律等方面的技术指标分析在不同环境条件下南疆高产棉花群体形成特点,针对陆地棉品种的根系性状、地上部农艺性状、产量和品质性状发育特性,系统开展了棉花高产群体发育生态学基础、高产棉田棉株个体发育规律、高产棉花品种特性等研究,实证新疆棉花高产研究调控技术。经过四年的研究取得如下主要结论: 1、南疆棉花高产的生态基础 高产棉田棉花生育进程与日平均气温的关系密切。气温高,生育期缩短;降水量大,进而延长生育进程。棉花开花—吐絮期,∑20℃积温、日照时数对棉花产量影响较大。6月份35℃以上的极端累计温度与籽棉产量关系最为密切。充足的光照促进单株铃数的增加,与高产棉田的产量密切相关:10月份累积日照时数与籽棉产量的关系最为密切,5、6、8、9月份的累积日照时数对籽棉产量的影响也比较大,8、10月份累积日照时数对单铃重影响比较大。灌溉条件下,降水量与高产棉田的产量关联度最小。 2、南疆高产棉花品种选育指标的筛选及根系遗传演变规律 高产棉花品种株高发育、叶龄发育比一般的品种快,单株现蕾总数、成铃总数、成铃速度具有很大的优势。棉花单铃籽棉重对籽棉产量的影响最大,单株铃数对产量的影响次之。高产品种的籽棉产量与单株结铃数呈显著正相关,单株铃数与铃重为负相关:单株成铃数增加,单铃重下降;铃重与铃壳、棉籽重、纤维重、种子数呈明显正相关,衣分与籽指、衣指、纤维重相关系数分别为0.829、0.606、0.632;籽指与籽棉重、纤维重为正相关。引进品种岱80的根系发育最好,新陆中26号根系发育最差。自育品种中80年的选育品种的根系明显优于90年代,2000-2010年后选育品种的根系发育变异系数没有规律。具有小根系的现代棉花品种比大根系的老品种因为适应密植,降低了根系冗余与根呼吸消耗,使更多的同化产物分配到地上部分而显著增产。 3、南疆高产棉花发育特性 高产棉田群体的生育期、花蕾发育、果枝发育与棉铃发育进程不同。由于高产品种10-108-3的现蕾、开花、成铃期前移特性有效地避免高温干旱气候,造成的蕾铃脱落、出现果枝“中空”的现象。高产品种群体单叶和群体光合速率峰值比一般品种出现晚。高产品种10-108-3最大群体光合速率都出现在盛铃前期,为27.5μmolm-2s-1。盛铃期以后,10-108-3的单叶净光合速率下降趋势相对平缓,吐絮期维持在17.3μmolm-2s-1,整个生育期呼吸速率、群体光合速率均维持在30%~47%的较低水平,特别是初絮期,仅为30.4%,相比于07-16和华棉1号低2.3~28.1%。高产品种10-108-3的叶片上举特性有利于群体透风透光。盛铃期LAI峰值为4.4,此后缓慢下降,到吐絮期LAI保持在3.1左右。高产品种10-108-3叶倾角在各生育期始终大于07-16和华棉1号,平均值为56°,最大叶倾角68.8°。高产棉花群体干物质积累最快时期为盛花期到盛铃期。10-108-3产量干物质累积速度达到480.6kg.hm-2.d-1,盛铃后期至吐絮期达371.8kg.hm-2.d-1,相比于华棉1号和07-16分别高出40.8%-71%;盛花期生殖器官干重占地上部干重的44%,盛铃期占51%,吐絮期占63%,盛铃期分别比07-16和对照(华棉1号)多2%和4%,吐絮期分别多10%和11%。 4、南疆棉区不同管理措施对棉花生理指标的影响与机制 棉花打顶有利于叶片叶绿素含量的提高,有利于棉花根冠比、侧根数和侧根长度的增加,有利于棉花籽指、中下部衣分、马指和成熟度的提高;不利于主根长度的增加,不利于棉花中下部铃重的增加;对于纤维绒长、比强度没有明显的规律。棉花打顶处理后,因果枝叶片数、单株叶片数和单叶面积的增加等原因,打顶处理的单株叶面积大于不打顶处理,叶绿素含量始终明显高于不打顶处理。并且滴灌棉花打顶后,植株不同部位的五种植物激素存在明显差异。用DPC打顶处理提高棉花的光合速率、叶绿素含量,霜前籽棉产量比不用DPC不打顶处理高,而且差异达到显著甚至极显著水平。用DPC打顶处理的叶枝成铃率最高,不用DPC不打顶处理的果枝成铃率高,叶枝成铃率最低,不用DPC不打顶处理总脱落数最高。目前的栽培条件下合理采用该两项技术充分利用遗传资源、环境资源、生态资源,弥补气候资源的不足、发挥品种的内在潜力,协调棉花个体和群体发育,对新疆棉花产量的增产起非常重要的作用。
其他摘要Cotton is the main staple crop of Xinjiang. Xinjiang, as the one of the perfect regions to plant cotton, gradually becomes one of the important producing areas of our country. The development of cotton is related to the survival of the downstream industries. Being the largest high-quality cotton-producing area, Xinjiang plays a vital part to ensure the safety of national cotton. At present, the supply of cotton in the world exceeds demand, so it becomes the crucial development direction for cotton industry in Xinjiang to “improve the quality and increase the efficiency”. Xinjiang has become the highest-yield cotton-producing area throughout the world, because the increasing cotton yield has strong support from popularization and application of new technologies, such as excellent varieties, precision seeding technology, drip irrigation technology, integration of water into fertilizer, harvest mechanization technology and so on. The exploration on the mechanism of Xinjiang cotton high-yield in a large area has provided theory support for cotton continuous high-yield of Xinjiang, but correlational research is lack of the systematic research on the individual features and on the ecology and psychology of high-yield population building for theory support. This research takes the providing sustainable high-yield theory and technology for Xinjiang cotton producing as its goal, takes the Xinjiang production and construction corps agricultural division sixteen population s of Xinjiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences' Institute of Economic Crops implementing the creation of the high-yield cotton field with 4000-kilogram lint in a hectare as its research platform, puts the high-yield varieties of 10-108-3 and AY4 as the material, and adopts the root system observation methods in situ in the large field. Then this research will be compared with the artificial climate chamber floating cultivation method. According to the following aspects, photosynthetic characteristics of cotton population, leaf index area, distribution rule of dry matter, and the specification analysis on the individual vegetative organs and reproductive organ development law, this paper will analyze the high-yield cotton population formation characteristics in the south of Xinjiang under different environmental conditions. For the root traits of upland cotton cultivars, agronomic traits of the aboveground part and development characteristics of yield and quality traits, this paper carries out the research on the ecological basis of population development of high-yield cotton, individual development law on the cotton plants of high-yield cotton field, and high yield cotton variety characteristics to demonstrate the Xinjiang cotton high-yield research and control technology. The following main conclusions are reached through 4-year study. 1. The ecological basis of high-yield cotton field in south of Xinjiang The development progress of cotton in high-yield cotton field has close relations with daily average temperature. High temperature will shorten the growth period and high rainfall will prolong its development progress. These aspects, such as flowering boll opening period of cotton, 20 degrees centigrade of accumulated temperature and sunshine duration, can make great influence on the cotton productivity. The extreme accumulative temperature above 35 degrees centigrade in June has most close relations with seed cotton productivity. Plenty of light will promote the increasing of boll number per plant, which has close relations with the productivity in high-yield fields. The accumulated sunshine duration in October is most close correlated with the seed cotton yield; the accumulated sunshine duration in May, June, July and September also has a great effect on seed cotton yield and the accumulated sunshine duration in August and October has more close relations with the single boll weight. Under the condition of irrigation, the precipitation has less relations with the yield of high-yield cotton field. 2. The screening breeding index and root genetic evolution law of of high yield cotton variety in south of Xinjiang The plant height growth and leaf age development of high-yield cotton are sooner than the general varieties and the total number of buds and growing bolls and the speed of growing into bolls have great advantage. The seed cotton weight of a single boll plays a key part in the seed cotton yield and the number of bolls on single plant has less effect for this. The seed cotton yield of high-yield varieties has positive correlation with the number of bolls on a single plant, while the number of single plant bolls has negative correlation with the weight of bolls. Because that the number of a single plant bolls increase and the weight of a single boll will decrease; the weight of a boll has positive correlation with the boll shell, weight of cotton seed, weight of fiber and seed number with the correlation coefficient between the ginning outturn and seed index, lint index and fiber weight separately as 0.829, 0.606 and 0.632, and the seed index has positive correlation with seed cotton weight and fiber weight. The root of Adai 80, an introduced variety, develops best and that of the Xinluzhong No.26 develops worst. The root development of improved varieties of the 80’s of home-bred ones is superior to that of the 90’s and there isn’t law in the variable coefficient of root development of the improved varieties from 2000 to 2010. The modern cotton varieties with small root system have made greater yield improvement than the old varieties with large root system, because the modern varieties adapt to the condensed planting to decrease the root redundancy and respiration consumption of root and to distribute more assimilation product to the aboveground parts. 3. The development characteristics of high-yield cotton in the south of Xinjiang The development progress, bud development and fruit and branches development of high-yield cotton population are different from the development progress of cotton bolls. The transfer characteristics of the period of budding, blossom and boll setting can avoid the phenomenon of boll abscission and hollow branches because of the hot and dry weather. The peak of the population simple leaf and canopy photosynthetic rate of high-yield varieties appears later than that of the general varieties. The maximum canopy photosynthetic rate of high-yield variety, 10-108-3, appears at the early stage of peak-bolling as 27.5μmolm-2s-1. After the peak-bolling, the downtrend of simple leaf net photosynthetic rate becomes relatively flat and that in boll opening stage can maintain 17.3μmolm-2s-1. The respiratory rate and canopy photosynthetic rate can maintain at a relatively low level of 30%-47%, especially in the early period of boll-opening with 30.4%, a low of 2.3-28.1% compared with varieties, 07-16 and China cotton No.1. The leaf characteristics of variety 10-108-3 mentioned above are beneficial to population drafty pervious to light. The peak value of LAI during boll-setting period is 4.4, and after that period it will fall slowly and maintain around 3.1 during boll-opening. The leaf inclination of high-yield variety 10-108-3 will be larger than that of 07-16 and China cotton No.1 during each growth period with average value of 56° and largest value of 68.8°. The fastest period of dry material accumulation is from the full-blossom period and full-boll period with the 10-108-3 speed of dry material accumulation being 480.6kg.hm-2.d-1,reaching 371.8kg.hm-2.d-1 from the later stage of full-boll to the boll-opening period, exceeding the China cotton No.1 and 07-16 separately as 40.8% and 71%. Dry weight of reproductive organs in full-bloom stage covers 44% of that of the whole aboveground parts, 2% and 4% higher separately than 07-61 and the contrast variety ( China cotton No.1), 51% in full-boll period and 63% in boll-opening period,over 10% and 11% separately than those two varieties. 4.The influence and mechanism for cotton physiological indexes under different management methods in cotton region of the south of Xinjiang Cotton topping is beneficial to the improvement of chlorophyll content in cotton leaves, the increasing of the root shoot ratio, lateral root number and the length of lateral root and the improvement of the ginning outturn of the middle and lower part and the maturity, but it will be bad for the main root length increasing and the the weight increasing of bolls in middle and lower part of the cotton plants, and it has no influence law on the fiber length and specific strength. After cotton topping, the chlorophyll content will be higher than that before cotton topping because the number of branch leaves, leaf number per plant and the single leaf area will be increasing and the leaf area per plant will be increasing too. Five kinds of plant hormones in different positions of the plant under drop irrigation will have visible differences. Spraying DPC and cotton-topping can increase the photosynthetic rate and chlorophyll content and the seed cotton yield before the frost is higher or remarkably higher than that of those cottons without praying DPC and cotton-topping. The leaf branch boll setting percentage is the highest with spraying DPC and cotton-topping and the fruit branch boll setting percentage will be higher without spraying DPC and cotton-topping. The leaf branch boll setting percentage is the lowest and the total number of abscission is the highest when the cotton isn’t tackled through spraying DPC and cotton-topping. At present, we can integrate these two kinds of methods with taking full advantage of the genetic, environmental and ecological resources to mend up the shortcomings of climate resources, to play the inherent potentials of the varieties and to coordinate the cotton individual and community development, playing an important part in Xinjiang cotton yield increasing.
学科领域生态学
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.xjlas.org/handle/365004/14611
专题研究系统_荒漠环境研究室
作者单位中科院新疆生态与地理研究所
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
吐尔逊江·买买提. 南疆高产棉花个体发育和群体调控技术研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院大学,2015.
条目包含的文件
条目无相关文件。
个性服务
推荐该条目
保存到收藏夹
查看访问统计
导出为Endnote文件
谷歌学术
谷歌学术中相似的文章
[吐尔逊江·买买提]的文章
百度学术
百度学术中相似的文章
[吐尔逊江·买买提]的文章
必应学术
必应学术中相似的文章
[吐尔逊江·买买提]的文章
相关权益政策
暂无数据
收藏/分享
所有评论 (0)
暂无评论
 

除非特别说明,本系统中所有内容都受版权保护,并保留所有权利。