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温度与光强对疏叶骆驼刺表型可塑性及光系统II活性的影响
李磊
学位类型博士
导师徐新文
2015
学位授予单位中国科学院大学
学位授予地点北京
学位专业生态学
关键词温度 光强 形态可塑性 光系统ii 疏叶骆驼刺
摘要高等植物的生长发育过程受外界环境变化的影响。过去100年的时间里全球平均气温大约上升了0.6℃,并且预计将以更高的速度继续上升,动物和植物都将会对这种气候的变化产生生态响应。干旱区生态环境脆弱,干旱区植物对气候变化较为敏感。全球气候变暖会对干旱区生态系统的结构和功能产生影响。光照作为植物进行光合作用的能量来源,光是对植物影响最大的环境因子之一,光的强度和组成影响着高等植物整个生长发育过程中光合器官的结构和功能。植物在不同的光照强度下有不同的形态及生理适应策略。以往对于光照强度对植物的影响的研究大多集中在生长在森林生态系统中的物种,对生长在干旱区的荒漠植物研究较少。 塔克拉玛干沙漠南缘沙漠—绿洲过渡带植被盖度低,生态环境极其脆弱。疏叶骆驼刺(Alhagi sparsifolia Shap.)是过渡带的优势建群种,其在维护过渡带的生态系统的结构和功能以及防风固沙方面发挥着重要的作用。本研究以疏叶骆驼刺为研究对象,开展温度和光照强度对疏叶骆驼刺的光系统II(PSII)的影响,期望回答荒漠植物疏叶骆驼刺在高温胁迫下PSII活性的敏感性;在弱光下形态及PSII的适应策略;弱光适应后暴露在正常光强下叶片PSII的响应特征。主要研究结果如下: (1)在35℃-48℃时,疏叶骆驼刺叶片PSII活性显著大于同化枝;叶和同化枝PSII有相同的敏感温度;超过52℃时,同化枝的适应能力高于叶片,表明疏叶骆驼刺同化枝对恶劣环境的适应能力超过叶片。 (2)在38 – 44℃条件下,胁迫时间为5 min和20 min时,疏叶骆驼刺叶荧光曲线无明显变化;胁迫时间为40 min,随着温度的升高其荧光强度降低,但并无K点出现,表明发生可逆性失活;在44℃下胁迫60 min时,出现明显K点,表明放氧复合体(OEC)受到损害,OEC的损坏会对电子链的传递产生抑制。因此,如果未来出现44℃的极端天气且存在时间超过60 min,可能将会对疏叶骆驼刺的正常生长造成严重损害。 (3)疏叶骆驼刺的生长明显受到弱光环境的限制,在50%光强水平上,疏叶骆驼刺幼苗植株无明显同化枝出现,随着光强的降低根冠比降低,表明在弱光下植株将更多的同化物质分配至地上部分来获取光能;同时,将更多的同化物质分配至光合效率较高的叶,将更少甚至不分配同化物质至光合效率较低的同化枝是一种在特定环境下(弱光)对光合器官的一种权衡。 (4)PSII电子传递链的末端至PSI受体侧电子的传递在弱光下受到抑制,这可能是导致弱光下植物光合固定产物较低,生物量降低的原因;疏叶骆驼刺在经过弱光驯化后暴露在自然光强下,自然光抑制了疏叶骆驼刺的PSII活性;疏叶骆驼刺嫩叶的PSII的活性在正常和弱光光强环境下均高于成熟叶;而弱光适应后暴露在正常光强下,嫩叶对光强胁迫比成熟叶更敏感。
其他摘要Plant growth and development processes were affected by the changes of external environment. The average global temperature has increased by approximately 0.6 ℃ over the past 100 years and is projected to continue to rise at a rapid rate, which will cause ecological responses of both flora and fauna. Climate warming would affect the structure and function of the ecological system, especially for the cold and arid regions, which are the most sensitive area to climate change. Light, is one of the most important environmental factors that regulate the development of the photosynthetic system in higher plants; as the source of energy for carbon fixation, light exhibits a regulatory function in plant growth. Under different light conditions, leaves develop various characteristics. However, these studies have focused on plants in rainforests; studies have been rarely conducted on typical desert plants grown under high irradiance conditions. Alhagi sparsifolia Shap. is the primary vegetation in the forelands of the Taklamakan Desert which is characteristic of high temperature and light intensity. This species is of great importance to wind prevention and sand fixation in the transition zone. We conducted a temperature and light experiments in order to investigate (1) the sensitivity of photosystem II (PSII) activity in A. sparsifolia under brief elevated temperature; (2) shade adaptive strategy of morphology and PSII in A. sparsifolia under low light conditions; (3) response of PSII activity in A. sparsifolia to exposure to natural light after being kept in shade. Main results for this study are as follows: (1) Both the activity and the density of the reaction centers in leaves were higher than that of assimilative branches at 35 – 48℃; leaves and assimilative branches have the same temperature sensitivity point; assimilative branches showed better adaptability than leaves of A. sparsifolia above 52 ℃, suggesting that assimilative branches might be more adaptive to severe environment. (2) OJIP transients were only slightly changed at 5 and 20 min, but decreased with increasing temperature at 40 min with no apparent K-step, and indicate that they have recovery of activity of PSII. Moreover, the OJIP transients were limited by increasing timing stress, with a pronounced K-step at 44 ℃ for 60 min, and suggested that oxygen-evolving complex (OEC) was damaged and an inhibition of the electron donor to the secondary electron donor of PSII. Such conditions may result in the photoinhibition and metabolic impairment of A. sparsifolia at the southern Taklamakan Desert before its adaption to 44 ℃ which is transient elevation in air temperature under extreme weather conditions. (3) Low-light conditions limited the normal growth of A. sparsifolia. The assimilative branches were disappeared in low irradiance (with higher soil water content) and maybe it is an evolution for greater productivity. The root to shoot ratios was decreased with decreasing light intensity. Plant would invest more energy in leaves for a greater efficiency in capturing light resources. These results were a trade-off adaption of A. sparsifolia for low light conditions. (4) Leaves PSII activity was enhanced, however, the electron transport from donor side of PSII to acceptor side of PSI was inhibited at low light conditions. These results maybe caused the biomass accumulation reduced under low irradiance. A. sparsifolia was unable to cope with high-light intensities after 20 days of exposure to natural irradiance from low light condition. PSII activity of immature leaves was higher than that of mature leaves under low and normal light conditions. Moreover, immature leaves were more sensitive than mature leaves to light stress
学科领域生态学
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.xjlas.org/handle/365004/14615
专题研究系统_荒漠环境研究室
作者单位中科院新疆生态与地理研究所
推荐引用方式
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李磊. 温度与光强对疏叶骆驼刺表型可塑性及光系统II活性的影响[D]. 北京. 中国科学院大学,2015.
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