|其他摘要||The protection and management of world natural heritage has become broadly representative of international protection of nature and world life under the United Nations. In the process of protection and management, reasonable protected mode should be formulated by the core value and interference factors to the heritage site. Taking Xinjiang Tianshan heritage site as a study area, this research selects mountain natural heritage value carrier (forest, grassland, wetland, glacier, and typical landform) as the core research objects, comparing to the 65 world mountain natural heritage sites in the world. The method of GIS spatial analysis and GAP spatial averaging technique were used to build the degree of protection of heritage and analyze the spatial distribution characteristics of different grade of value carrier protection basis on the characteristics and vulnerability of heritage carriers. By the method of landscape pattern and buffer analysis, the extent and scope of heritage value carrier was determined by the factors of the tourism infrastructure construction and grazing. Finally, the heritage protection mode was confirmed with different degree of heritage protection partition. This research provides important theoretical and practical significance to guide mountain heritage protection and sustainable development, also provides the decision-making basis for mountain natural heritage protection and planning in the future.
The main contents and results are as follows:
(1) The characteristics and factors of mountain natural heritage value carrier. ①The carriers (forest, grassland, wetland, glacier, typical landform) were selected refer to the concept and category about mountain natural heritage classification and protection, and the comparison to the 65 world mountain natural heritage sites in the world. ②The factors and scope of mountain natural heritage site were researched according to the IUCN technology assessment report and statistical analysis report for the world natural heritage. The human factors of world mountain natural heritage site contain biological resources development, construction, management and institutional factors, natural resources development, pollution, traffic facilities, service facilities.
(2) Making the classification and protection evaluation system of mountain natural heritage. ①With the Delphi method and Analysis Hierarchy Process (AHP), the value of carrier evaluation index and weight were determined. The protection degree evaluation index system and threshold of protection degree of forest, grassland, wetland, glacier, and typical landform were built using the multi-factor weighting evaluation method. ②Based on the research of factors of mountain natural heritage site, this research confirmed that tourism activity and road construction could make landscape fragmentation, wildlife migration or loss, cutting off species migration channels, and changing the way of land use. ③Protected mode was summarized with the different degree of protection, including layer of protection mode, corridor mode, landscape and grazing mode, ecological mode, animal husbandry, museum mode and game mode.
(3) Analysis the degree of protection of heritage value carrier and each district of Xinjiang Tianshan heritage site. ①The area of high degree of protection to forest distributes in Kuerdening, where the spruce forest has the most abundant community structure. ②The area of high degree of protection to grassland distributes around the river, and the region with great vegetation cover, landscape and low degradation degree. ③The area of high degree of protection to Bayanbulak wetland distributes in the region with high aesthetic landscape value, drainage density, and good swamp habitat.④The area of high degree of protection to glacier distributes in the edge of ice tongue, periglacial and more complete glacier patches. ⑤The area of high degree of protection to red landform distributes in the south of Tomur, with high slop, and erosion degree. The land use types is given priority to the bare rock. ⑥In the study of each area of Xinjiang Tianshan, the high degree of protection to Tomur distributes in the area of the edge of ice tongue and the region of highest aesthetic value. The region of high degree protection of Kalajun-kuerdening distributes in the area of most abundant spruce forest in Kuerdening, and the grassland of Kalajun with downstream of Kuerdai river and the border line of northern forest. The region of high degree protection of Bayanbulak distributes in the wetland. The region of high degree protection of Bogda distributes near the forest of Tianchi lake and Bogda peak.
(4) Factors and value carrier protected mode of Xinjiang Tianshan. ①In Xinjiang Tianshan heritage site, tourism activity most affected Bogda, grazing is the main factors to Bayanbulak and Kalajun-kuerdening. The factors of tourism activity contain tourism infrastructure construction, road construction and tourism garbage. ②The factor of forest is tourism. The protected mode of forest contain layer of protection mode, corridor mode, landscape and grazing mode, ecological mode to protect the plants and animals in woodland habitat. ③The factors of grassland contain tourism activity and grazing. The major protected mode of grassland is landscape and grazing mode. Also the mode of grazing capacity, limit of grazing, enclosure protection, grassland construction, monitoring point construction and disaster prevention are used to protect the grassland value. ④Bayanbulak region affected by grazing and tourism activity. Ecological mode is used to protecting the value of wetland. ⑤The protected mode of glacier contain the way of limiting human activity, and monitoring point construction. ⑥The protected mode of red landform are ecological mode and the way of monitoring point construction.
(5) The protected mode of each district of Xinjiang Tianshan. ①In the district of Tomur, layer of protection mode, corridor mode, landscape and grazing mode, ecological mode, animal husbandry combined with each other in space. Considering the publicity exhibition and the relationship (museum, game mode) between the stakeholders of heritage site, different mode protect the value of heritage site in the form of muti-mode penetration. ②The protected mode of Kalajun-kuerdening use the six modes to protect the value of heritage. The application of game mode reflect the contradiction of landscape protection and reasonable grazing. In addition, monitoring point is built to prevent hunting and deforestation. ③In Bayanbulak, the distribution of layer of protection mode, landscape and grazing mode, and ecological mode partly overlap in space. The application of game mode is used to analyze the relationship between grazing, tourism and protection. The construction of museum of wetland is used to protecting and promoting the wetland heritage value. ④The protected mode of Bogda does not contain landscape and grazing mode. The distribution of corridor and layer of protection mode partly overlay in space. Ecological mode is used to near Tianchi lake. Game mode is used to formulating the reasonable policy and guaranteeing the herdsmen’s survival needs and the heritage value protection.
(6) The policy suggestions of this research. ①the policy of grazing prohibition and ecological compensation. According to grazing capacity, pasture recovery time and the aspiration of herdsmen, the policy of grazing prohibition should be established. The policy of ecological compensation will be established on the aspect of money, material, technology and industry. ②the policy of tourism subsidy to grazing. Landscape and grazing mode is the protection mode of grassland in heritage site. Combining with the mode of landscape and grazing, the policy should be made to carry on the grazing husbandry from tourism because of the limitation of grazing in tourism period. ③the policy of monitoring and protection. Related monitoring policy should be established containing the monitoring point construction, management of monitoring data and staff. ④the policy of fiscal subsidies. According to the actual situation of heritage site, the fiscal subsidies policy should be made through the way of government investment and donation of social and international organization. The fiscal subsidies will use to infrastructure construction, ecological protection, environmental monitoring, biological resources and habitat protection, scientific research and education propaganda of heritage site.|