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新疆天山自然遗产分类保护研究
时卉
学位类型博士
导师杨兆萍
2015
学位授予单位中国科学院大学
学位授予地点北京
学位专业人文地理学
关键词山地自然遗产 遗产保护度评估 影响因素 保护模式 新疆天山
摘要世界自然遗产的保护管理工作,在联合国主导下已成为具有广泛代表性的国际自然保护行动。在遗产地的保护与管理中,需要针对遗产地自身核心价值和所面临的周边干扰因素制定合理的保护模式。本论文以新疆天山遗产地为例,通过与全球65项山地自然遗产地对比,选取山地自然遗产相关的价值载体(包括森林、草地、湿地、冰川、典型地貌)作为核心研究对象,运用GIS空间分析和GAP空间叠加技术,构建基于遗产价值载体特征以及自身脆弱性的保护度评估体系,并研究不同价值载体的保护等级空间分布特征。通过景观格局和缓冲区分析方法,确定旅游基础设施建设和放牧等因素对各遗产价值载体的影响程度和范围。最终,确定遗产地不同遗产保护度等级分区的遗产保护模式。本文对于指导山地自然遗产的保护与可持续发展具有重要的理论与实践意义,为今后山地自然遗产相关的保护与管理规划提供决策依据。 本文主要内容和结论如下: (1)山地自然遗产价值载体特征及其影响因素。①基于对山地自然遗产分类保护概念和范畴的界定,对全球65项山地自然遗产地进行对比,选出森林、草地、湿地、冰川、典型地貌作为山地自然遗产相关的价值载体。②根据山地自然遗产的IUCN技术评估报告和IUCN对世界自然遗产的统计分析报告,认为生物资源开发、开发建设、管理和制度因素、自然资源开发、污染、遗产使用、交通设施、服务设施等是威胁全球山地自然遗产地保护的影响因素。 (2)建立山地自然遗产分类保护评估体系。①运用德尔菲法、层次分析法确定价值载体评估指标及权重,采用多因子加权评价方法构建森林保护度、草地保护度、湿地保护度、冰川保护度、典型地貌保护度的保护度评估指标体系,确立保护度阈值。②通过对山地自然遗产影响因素的研究,认为旅游和道路建设使得遗产地景观破碎化、迫使野生动物被动迁移或丧失、阻隔物种传播和迁移的通道并改变区域土地利用方式。③归纳总结出山地自然遗产地的保护模式,包括圈层保护模式、廊道模式、生态型模式、景观牧业模式、博物馆模式以及博弈模式。 (3)新疆天山遗产地价值载体保护度与各片区遗产保护度的空间分异分析。①遗产地森林保护度高、较高值区分布在库尔德宁片区云杉林分布最好、群落结构最丰富的区域。②草地保护度的高值区分布在遗产地的河流沿岸、植被覆盖程度较好、景观较好、退化程度较低的区域。③巴音布鲁克湿地保护度的高值区分布在景观美学价值高、河网密度大、以良好的沼泽生境为主的区域。④冰川保护度的高值区集中在冰舌外缘、冰缘附近以及冰川较为完整的区域。⑤托木尔红层地貌保护度的高值区分布在红层地貌南部,坡度较高、土地利用类型以裸岩石砾地为主,土壤侵蚀度高的区域。⑥新疆天山遗产地的各片区,托木尔遗产保护度高值区呈线状分布在冰川冰舌末端以及点状分布在美学价值最高的区域;喀拉峻-库尔德宁遗产保护度高值区连片分布于库尔德宁北部云杉林分布最为丰富的区域以及喀拉峻大草原内库尔代河支流的下游河岸带和北部的林缘线附近;巴音布鲁克片区遗产保护度高值区连片分布于片区内湿地类型中;博格达片区遗产保护度高值区呈片状分布在天池景区附近的森林生境内,呈点状分布于博格达峰附近。 (4)新疆天山遗产地影响因素及价值载体保护模式。①新疆天山遗产地旅游活动影响显著的区域为博格达片区,放牧活动影响的区域为巴音布鲁克和喀拉峻-库尔德宁片区,旅游影响因素包括旅游基础设施建设、辅助道路建设、旅游垃圾等。②森林价值载体主要受旅游活动影响,通过旅游影响区内的景观仿生生态型模式、廊道模式、圈层生态型保护模式对林地生境的动植物进行保护。③草地载体受到放牧和旅游活动的影响,主要通过景观牧业模式、载畜量控制、限牧、围栏保护、草场建设、保护监测与灾害防治的形式对其进行保护。④巴音布鲁克湿地主要受到放牧和旅游活动的影响,通过仿生态型模式进行保护。⑤冰川的保护主要通过限制人为活动以及冰川监测站点的建立对其进行保护。⑥红层地貌通过仿生态型模式、地质监测等方式对其进行保护。 (5)新疆天山遗产地各片区保护模式。①托木尔片区通过圈层、廊道、生态型、景观牧业模式在空间上相互组合对遗产地片区进行保护;考虑遗产地的宣传、展示以及遗产地利益相关者之间的关系(博物馆、博弈模式),片区内通过多模式穿插的形式实现对托木尔遗产地的保护。②喀拉峻-库尔德宁片区通过六种模式相互组合的形式对片区进行保护,博弈模式主要体现在景观保护以及合理放牧方面,另外通过监测点的建立防止区内发生狩猎、森林砍伐现象。③巴音布鲁克片区的保护模式中,圈层模式、景观牧业模式与生态型模式在空间上部分重合。区内通过博弈模式解决放牧、旅游与保护之间的关系,并通过博物馆的建立对湿地遗产价值进行保护和宣传。④博格达片区廊道模式与圈层模式在空间上相互穿插,生态型模式主要集中在天池景区附近,通过博弈模式分析遗产地利益相关者之间的矛盾,为区内后期禁牧、轮牧政策的制定提供依据。 (6)本研究提出如下政策建议。①禁牧、轮牧政策和生态补偿政策。依据草场的载畜量、草场恢复时间以及牧民的意愿确定遗产地的轮牧、禁牧政策;对牧民搬迁制定资金、实物、技术以及产业等方面的生态补偿政策。②旅游业对牧业差额补贴的政策。遗产地的草地保护实行合理放牧与旅游相结合的形式,对因为旅游活动造成的限制放牧实行旅游对牧业的差额补偿,以此保证牧民的经济收入。③保护监测政策。制定相关保护监测政策,对监测站点的建立、监测数据以及监测人员进行管理,以达到对遗产地的保护监测与预警。④财政补贴政策。在财政上根据遗产地实际情况给予调剂和补助,通过政府投入、社会各界和国际组织捐赠、捐助等渠道,筹集遗产地保护专项资金,用于遗产地的基础设施、生态保护、环境监测、生物资源与栖息地保护、科研以及遗产教育宣传相关的建设。
其他摘要The protection and management of world natural heritage has become broadly representative of international protection of nature and world life under the United Nations. In the process of protection and management, reasonable protected mode should be formulated by the core value and interference factors to the heritage site. Taking Xinjiang Tianshan heritage site as a study area, this research selects mountain natural heritage value carrier (forest, grassland, wetland, glacier, and typical landform) as the core research objects, comparing to the 65 world mountain natural heritage sites in the world. The method of GIS spatial analysis and GAP spatial averaging technique were used to build the degree of protection of heritage and analyze the spatial distribution characteristics of different grade of value carrier protection basis on the characteristics and vulnerability of heritage carriers. By the method of landscape pattern and buffer analysis, the extent and scope of heritage value carrier was determined by the factors of the tourism infrastructure construction and grazing. Finally, the heritage protection mode was confirmed with different degree of heritage protection partition. This research provides important theoretical and practical significance to guide mountain heritage protection and sustainable development, also provides the decision-making basis for mountain natural heritage protection and planning in the future. The main contents and results are as follows: (1) The characteristics and factors of mountain natural heritage value carrier. ①The carriers (forest, grassland, wetland, glacier, typical landform) were selected refer to the concept and category about mountain natural heritage classification and protection, and the comparison to the 65 world mountain natural heritage sites in the world. ②The factors and scope of mountain natural heritage site were researched according to the IUCN technology assessment report and statistical analysis report for the world natural heritage. The human factors of world mountain natural heritage site contain biological resources development, construction, management and institutional factors, natural resources development, pollution, traffic facilities, service facilities. (2) Making the classification and protection evaluation system of mountain natural heritage. ①With the Delphi method and Analysis Hierarchy Process (AHP), the value of carrier evaluation index and weight were determined. The protection degree evaluation index system and threshold of protection degree of forest, grassland, wetland, glacier, and typical landform were built using the multi-factor weighting evaluation method. ②Based on the research of factors of mountain natural heritage site, this research confirmed that tourism activity and road construction could make landscape fragmentation, wildlife migration or loss, cutting off species migration channels, and changing the way of land use. ③Protected mode was summarized with the different degree of protection, including layer of protection mode, corridor mode, landscape and grazing mode, ecological mode, animal husbandry, museum mode and game mode. (3) Analysis the degree of protection of heritage value carrier and each district of Xinjiang Tianshan heritage site. ①The area of high degree of protection to forest distributes in Kuerdening, where the spruce forest has the most abundant community structure. ②The area of high degree of protection to grassland distributes around the river, and the region with great vegetation cover, landscape and low degradation degree. ③The area of high degree of protection to Bayanbulak wetland distributes in the region with high aesthetic landscape value, drainage density, and good swamp habitat.④The area of high degree of protection to glacier distributes in the edge of ice tongue, periglacial and more complete glacier patches. ⑤The area of high degree of protection to red landform distributes in the south of Tomur, with high slop, and erosion degree. The land use types is given priority to the bare rock. ⑥In the study of each area of Xinjiang Tianshan, the high degree of protection to Tomur distributes in the area of the edge of ice tongue and the region of highest aesthetic value. The region of high degree protection of Kalajun-kuerdening distributes in the area of most abundant spruce forest in Kuerdening, and the grassland of Kalajun with downstream of Kuerdai river and the border line of northern forest. The region of high degree protection of Bayanbulak distributes in the wetland. The region of high degree protection of Bogda distributes near the forest of Tianchi lake and Bogda peak. (4) Factors and value carrier protected mode of Xinjiang Tianshan. ①In Xinjiang Tianshan heritage site, tourism activity most affected Bogda, grazing is the main factors to Bayanbulak and Kalajun-kuerdening. The factors of tourism activity contain tourism infrastructure construction, road construction and tourism garbage. ②The factor of forest is tourism. The protected mode of forest contain layer of protection mode, corridor mode, landscape and grazing mode, ecological mode to protect the plants and animals in woodland habitat. ③The factors of grassland contain tourism activity and grazing. The major protected mode of grassland is landscape and grazing mode. Also the mode of grazing capacity, limit of grazing, enclosure protection, grassland construction, monitoring point construction and disaster prevention are used to protect the grassland value. ④Bayanbulak region affected by grazing and tourism activity. Ecological mode is used to protecting the value of wetland. ⑤The protected mode of glacier contain the way of limiting human activity, and monitoring point construction. ⑥The protected mode of red landform are ecological mode and the way of monitoring point construction. (5) The protected mode of each district of Xinjiang Tianshan. ①In the district of Tomur, layer of protection mode, corridor mode, landscape and grazing mode, ecological mode, animal husbandry combined with each other in space. Considering the publicity exhibition and the relationship (museum, game mode) between the stakeholders of heritage site, different mode protect the value of heritage site in the form of muti-mode penetration. ②The protected mode of Kalajun-kuerdening use the six modes to protect the value of heritage. The application of game mode reflect the contradiction of landscape protection and reasonable grazing. In addition, monitoring point is built to prevent hunting and deforestation. ③In Bayanbulak, the distribution of layer of protection mode, landscape and grazing mode, and ecological mode partly overlap in space. The application of game mode is used to analyze the relationship between grazing, tourism and protection. The construction of museum of wetland is used to protecting and promoting the wetland heritage value. ④The protected mode of Bogda does not contain landscape and grazing mode. The distribution of corridor and layer of protection mode partly overlay in space. Ecological mode is used to near Tianchi lake. Game mode is used to formulating the reasonable policy and guaranteeing the herdsmen’s survival needs and the heritage value protection. (6) The policy suggestions of this research. ①the policy of grazing prohibition and ecological compensation. According to grazing capacity, pasture recovery time and the aspiration of herdsmen, the policy of grazing prohibition should be established. The policy of ecological compensation will be established on the aspect of money, material, technology and industry. ②the policy of tourism subsidy to grazing. Landscape and grazing mode is the protection mode of grassland in heritage site. Combining with the mode of landscape and grazing, the policy should be made to carry on the grazing husbandry from tourism because of the limitation of grazing in tourism period. ③the policy of monitoring and protection. Related monitoring policy should be established containing the monitoring point construction, management of monitoring data and staff. ④the policy of fiscal subsidies. According to the actual situation of heritage site, the fiscal subsidies policy should be made through the way of government investment and donation of social and international organization. The fiscal subsidies will use to infrastructure construction, ecological protection, environmental monitoring, biological resources and habitat protection, scientific research and education propaganda of heritage site.
学科领域人文地理学
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.xjlas.org/handle/365004/14617
专题研究系统_荒漠环境研究室
作者单位中科院新疆生态与地理研究所
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
时卉. 新疆天山自然遗产分类保护研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院大学,2015.
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