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世界自然遗产地旅游富民模式与机制研究——以博格达片区为例
王芳
学位类型博士
导师杨兆萍
2015
学位授予单位中国科学院大学
学位授予地点北京
学位专业人文地理学
关键词社区参与 居民满意度 旅游富民 博格达
摘要本文以世界自然遗产地新疆天山的博格达片区为例,选择四个生态移民社区进行问卷调查和深度访谈,调查博格达旅游社区参与情况,运用结构方程模型、聚类分析、逻辑斯蒂回归等数理统计分析方法,对遗产旅游居民满意度进行评估,并提出世界自然遗产地旅游富民模式与协调机制,丰富了世界遗产地旅游富民案例研究,为世界自然遗产地保护、旅游可持续发展、放牧补偿提供科学依据和理论支撑。 本文的主要结论如下: (1)社区参与度。①社区参与方式:缓冲区的毡房公司、阔克胡拉村是全部参与旅游,西台子是部分参与旅游,柏斯胡木基本不参与旅游;工作类型包括旅游餐饮、住宿、家访、娱乐、交通、购物、民族手工艺展示等。②社区参与程度:属于社区参与等级中的初级阶段,居民希望参加旅游经营管理、民族手工艺生产、厨师、文化知识等培训。③居民旅游收益分析:家庭年收入方面旅游业>农业>畜牧业>其他,毡房公司>阔克胡拉村>柏斯胡木>西台子,说明生态移民后旅游富民作用最强。 (2)旅游相关性距离衰减规律:随着社区到遗产地旅游核心区距离增加,社区旅游相关性逐渐减弱。原因包括:旅游相关性在区位上,旅游热点>热线>温点>冷点;体制上,股份制>租赁制>景区雇佣制;政策上,生态移民搬迁距离近>中>远。 (3)居民意愿与现实差异大。①从业意愿:毡房公司(58.33%)、阔克胡拉村(90.24%)、西台子(70.30%)、柏斯胡木(37.14%)选择“旅游兼放牧”的比例均最大,现实是只能从事一种行业。②遗产地放牧方式:居民基本反对禁牧,毡房公司、阔克胡拉村支持“按载畜量放牧”的居民较多,西台子、柏斯胡木支持“自由放牧”的居民较多,但目前遗产地已经禁牧。③旅游开发:83%以上居民强调旅游开发要征求他们的意见,但实际上居民对景区开发决策并不知情。 (4)旅游影响感知。通过均值比较分析,负面经济影响感知>正面经济影响感知;正面环境影响感知>负面环境影响感知;负面心理影响感知>正面心理影响感知,且负面心理影响感知是所有影响感知中最强烈的。 (5)生态移民后的居民满意度。①与影响因素关系:通过结构方程模型分析,得出社区参与对旅游影响正向作用显著,心理影响对居民满意度正向作用显著,社会文化影响对居民满意度负向作用显著。②在不同社会人口特征上的居民满意度差异:居民满意度是女性>男性,30-39岁最低,且呈现随家庭年收入、旅游相关性增加而升高的趋势。 (6)居民分类。①分为四类:满意者、冷漠者、反对者和关心者。满意者主要是毡房公司、阔克胡拉村中从事旅游业的30-59岁哈萨克族,冷漠者主要是西台子、柏斯胡木从事农业和畜牧业的30-59岁低学历低收入哈萨克族男性,反对者主要是西台子30-49岁之间的低学历低收入的哈萨克族男性,关心者均为远离遗产地的柏斯胡木从事农业和畜牧业的30-49岁男性哈萨克族居民。②影响居民分类的因素:家庭年收入、居民目前从事的行业、社区到遗产的距离。 (7)旅游富民模式与机制。①总结出博格达遗产地旅游富民模式,包括旅游发展模式、社区参与模式、旅游投资模式、企业经营模式、政府管理模式。②探讨博格达旅游利益相关者相互作用机理,天池管委会、西域公司认为社区参与动力包括提供就业、培训机会、技术指导等,阻力包括经营技能不足、旅游接待设施跟不上、缺乏资金等;绘制了社区参与冲突关系图。③提出利益相关者协调机制。包括政府管理的引导机制、社区参与的补偿机制、企业经营的激励机制、游客行为的调控机制、公众参与的监督机制。 (8)政策建议。通过社区赋权提高社区参与水平;在世界自然遗产地生态移民时,对移民后的社区进行合理布局,使其能尽量从旅游中受益;加强社区基础设施和软件建设,提高居民服务质量;在实行自然遗产地重大政策前要了解居民真实意愿,并尽可能尊重居民意愿,协调好居民与其他利益相关者之间的关系,使利益向社区倾斜,促进人与自然和谐发展;积极探索生态补偿和旅游补偿机制,引导居民树立正确的认识,加大财政转移支付力度。
其他摘要This thesis takes Bogda area in the world natural heritage, Xinjiang Tianshan, as the case study, and questionnaires and in-depth interviews were conducted in four ecological immigrant communities to investigate the condition of community involvement in tourism of Bogda. The methods, including Structural Equation Modeling and mathematical statistic analysis such as cluster analysis and logistic, were employed to assess the resident satisfaction of heritage tourism. Patterns and mechanisms of tourism’ enriching residents in world natural heritage site were summerized. This thesis enriches the case studies of tourism’ enriching residents in world heritage site, and provides the scientific basis and theory support for the protection, tourism sustainable development, and grazing compensation of world natural heritage site. The main findings in this thesis are as follows: (1)Community involvement degree. ①Community involvement style: the residents in Yurt company and Kuokehula village in the buffer zone are wholely involved in tourism, residents in Xitaizi partly involved, residents in Baisihumu seldom involved. Their job types includes tourist catering, accommodation, home visiting, entertainment, traffic, shopping, ethnic handicraft exhibition. ②Level of community involvement belongs to the primary stage of community involvement grade. The training that residents are willing to attend were tourism management, ethnic handicraft production, kitchener, cultural knowledge. ③Analysis on residents’ tourism income: the household income presented tourism>agriculture>animal husbandry>other industries, Yurt company>Kuokehula village>Baisihumu >Xitaizi, which illustrates that tourism has the strongest effect on enriching residents after ecological migration. (2)The distance decay law of tourism dependency: with the distance increasing between community and tourism core area of heritage site, the correlation decreased between tourism and community. The reasons are as follows: tourism dependency on aspect of location are tourism hot spot>hot line>warm spot>cold spot; on aspect of system are the shareholding system>rental system> employment in scenic area; on aspect of policy are moving far >middle>far after ecological migration. (3)Great differences exist between residents’ will and reality. ①Desire for work. There is the biggest percentage of residents selecting the “tourism while grazing” in each of the four villages, Yurt company (58.33%), Kuokehula village (90.24%), Xitaizi village (70.30%), and Baisihumu village (37.14%) , but the reality is that the resident can be engaged in only one kind of industry.②Grazing ways in the heritage site. Residents are basicly against grazing prohibition. The Yurt company and Kuokehula village all have a higher proportion of supporting the “grazing by the carrying capacity of grassland” , while Xitaizi village and Baisihumu village all have a higher proportion of supporting the “free choice grazing”, but grazing prohibition is carried out in the heritage sites. ③Tourism development. More than 83% of the residents emphasized that their suggestions should be asked before tourism development were done in the heritage site, but the residents do not know the development decision of scenic area in reality. (4)Perception on tourism impacts. It is observed by the Means process that the negative economic impact perception is higher than the positive economic impact perception, the positive environmental impact perception is higher than the negative environmental impact perception, the negative psychological impact perception is higher than positive psychological impact perception, and the negative psychological impact perception is the strongest response of all. (5)The resident satisfaction after ecological migration. ①The relationship between resident satisfaction and influencing factors. Through analysis with the structural equation model,community involvement has a significant and positive effect on tourism impact; psychological impact has a significant and positive effect on resident satisfaction; conversely, social and cultural impact has a significant and negative effect on resident satisfaction. ②Resident satisfaction difference of different sociodemographic characteristics: The resident satisfaction of the female is higher than thatof the male, and residents between 30-39 years have the lowest value, and the resident satisfaction increases with household income and tourism dependency increasing. (6)Classification of residents. ①Residents can be divided into four levels, which are satisfactory, indifference, opponents and care. The satisficers are main Kazakhs of 30-59 years, who are engaged in tourism in the Yurt company and Kuokehula village. The indifference are main Kazakhs men of 30-59 years with lower income homes and lower education levels, who are engaged in agriculture and animal husbandry in Xitaizi Village. The opponents are Kazakhs men of 30-49 years, with lower income homes and lower education levels in Baisihumu village. The cares are mainly Kazakhs men of 30-49 years, who are engaged in agriculture and animal husbandry in Baisihumu Village far from the heritage site. ②The influencing factor of residents’ classification are household income, present industry, and the distance from the community to the heritage site. (7)The pattern and mechanism of tourism’ enriching residents. ①The patterns of tourism’ enriching residents in Bogda are summarized, including tourism development, community involvement, tourism investment, enterprise management, and the government management. ②The interaction mechanism of tourism stakeholder is discussed in this paper, Management Committee of Tianchi, the western region Tour & Co.Ltd hold the idea that the impetus of community participation include offering job, train opportunities, and technical guidance.The resistance are main lack of operating technique, insufficient tourism facilities, lack of capital. The diagram of relationship between community participation and conflict is drawn. ③The coordination mechanism of stakeholder is proposed, including the guidance mechanism of government management, compensation mechanism of community involvement, incentive mechanism of enterprise management, regulatory mechanism of tourist behavior, supervisory mechanism of public participation. (8)Policy and suggestions. The level of community participation can be raised through community empowerment. The community after immigration should be rationally distributed when ecological immigration is conducted in the world natural heritage site, making them benefit from tourism as far as possible. Strengthen the construction of community infrastructure and soft environment, and improve the service quality of residents. It is necessary to understand residents' real desire before carrying out major policies in the natural heritage sites, and the wishes of local residents should be respected as much as possible. The relationship between residents and other stakeholders should be coordinated, and benefit should be inclined to community, promoting harmonious development of human beings and nature. The ecological compensation and compensation mechanism should be actively explored, and the government should guide the residents to set up correct cognition and increase the intensity of transfer payment from the exchequer.
学科领域人文地理学
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.xjlas.org/handle/365004/14618
专题研究系统_荒漠环境研究室
作者单位中科院新疆生态与地理研究所
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
王芳. 世界自然遗产地旅游富民模式与机制研究——以博格达片区为例[D]. 北京. 中国科学院大学,2015.
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