|其他摘要||This thesis takes Bogda area in the world natural heritage, Xinjiang Tianshan, as the case study, and questionnaires and in-depth interviews were conducted in four ecological immigrant communities to investigate the condition of community involvement in tourism of Bogda. The methods, including Structural Equation Modeling and mathematical statistic analysis such as cluster analysis and logistic, were employed to assess the resident satisfaction of heritage tourism. Patterns and mechanisms of tourism’ enriching residents in world natural heritage site were summerized. This thesis enriches the case studies of tourism’ enriching residents in world heritage site, and provides the scientific basis and theory support for the protection, tourism sustainable development, and grazing compensation of world natural heritage site.
The main findings in this thesis are as follows:
(1)Community involvement degree. ①Community involvement style: the residents in Yurt company and Kuokehula village in the buffer zone are wholely involved in tourism, residents in Xitaizi partly involved, residents in Baisihumu seldom involved. Their job types includes tourist catering, accommodation, home visiting, entertainment, traffic, shopping, ethnic handicraft exhibition. ②Level of community involvement belongs to the primary stage of community involvement grade. The training that residents are willing to attend were tourism management, ethnic handicraft production, kitchener, cultural knowledge. ③Analysis on residents’ tourism income: the household income presented tourism>agriculture>animal husbandry>other industries, Yurt company>Kuokehula village>Baisihumu >Xitaizi, which illustrates that tourism has the strongest effect on enriching residents after ecological migration.
(2)The distance decay law of tourism dependency: with the distance increasing between community and tourism core area of heritage site, the correlation decreased between tourism and community. The reasons are as follows: tourism dependency on aspect of location are tourism hot spot>hot line>warm spot>cold spot; on aspect of system are the shareholding system>rental system> employment in scenic area; on aspect of policy are moving far >middle>far after ecological migration.
(3)Great differences exist between residents’ will and reality. ①Desire for work. There is the biggest percentage of residents selecting the “tourism while grazing” in each of the four villages, Yurt company (58.33%), Kuokehula village (90.24%), Xitaizi village (70.30%), and Baisihumu village (37.14%) , but the reality is that the resident can be engaged in only one kind of industry.②Grazing ways in the heritage site. Residents are basicly against grazing prohibition. The Yurt company and Kuokehula village all have a higher proportion of supporting the “grazing by the carrying capacity of grassland” , while Xitaizi village and Baisihumu village all have a higher proportion of supporting the “free choice grazing”, but grazing prohibition is carried out in the heritage sites. ③Tourism development. More than 83% of the residents emphasized that their suggestions should be asked before tourism development were done in the heritage site, but the residents do not know the development decision of scenic area in reality.
(4)Perception on tourism impacts. It is observed by the Means process that the negative economic impact perception is higher than the positive economic impact perception, the positive environmental impact perception is higher than the negative environmental impact perception, the negative psychological impact perception is higher than positive psychological impact perception, and the negative psychological impact perception is the strongest response of all.
(5)The resident satisfaction after ecological migration. ①The relationship between resident satisfaction and influencing factors. Through analysis with the structural equation model,community involvement has a significant and positive effect on tourism impact; psychological impact has a significant and positive effect on resident satisfaction; conversely, social and cultural impact has a significant and negative effect on resident satisfaction. ②Resident satisfaction difference of different sociodemographic characteristics: The resident satisfaction of the female is higher than thatof the male, and residents between 30-39 years have the lowest value, and the resident satisfaction increases with household income and tourism dependency increasing.
(6)Classification of residents. ①Residents can be divided into four levels, which are satisfactory, indifference, opponents and care. The satisficers are main Kazakhs of 30-59 years, who are engaged in tourism in the Yurt company and Kuokehula village. The indifference are main Kazakhs men of 30-59 years with lower income homes and lower education levels, who are engaged in agriculture and animal husbandry in Xitaizi Village. The opponents are Kazakhs men of 30-49 years, with lower income homes and lower education levels in Baisihumu village. The cares are mainly Kazakhs men of 30-49 years, who are engaged in agriculture and animal husbandry in Baisihumu Village far from the heritage site. ②The influencing factor of residents’ classification are household income, present industry, and the distance from the community to the heritage site.
(7)The pattern and mechanism of tourism’ enriching residents. ①The patterns of tourism’ enriching residents in Bogda are summarized, including tourism development, community involvement, tourism investment, enterprise management, and the government management. ②The interaction mechanism of tourism stakeholder is discussed in this paper, Management Committee of Tianchi, the western region Tour & Co.Ltd hold the idea that the impetus of community participation include offering job, train opportunities, and technical guidance.The resistance are main lack of operating technique, insufficient tourism facilities, lack of capital. The diagram of relationship between community participation and conflict is drawn. ③The coordination mechanism of stakeholder is proposed, including the guidance mechanism of government management, compensation mechanism of community involvement, incentive mechanism of enterprise management, regulatory mechanism of tourist behavior, supervisory mechanism of public participation.
(8)Policy and suggestions. The level of community participation can be raised through community empowerment. The community after immigration should be rationally distributed when ecological immigration is conducted in the world natural heritage site, making them benefit from tourism as far as possible. Strengthen the construction of community infrastructure and soft environment, and improve the service quality of residents. It is necessary to understand residents' real desire before carrying out major policies in the natural heritage sites, and the wishes of local residents should be respected as much as possible. The relationship between residents and other stakeholders should be coordinated, and benefit should be inclined to community, promoting harmonious development of human beings and nature. The ecological compensation and compensation mechanism should be actively explored, and the government should guide the residents to set up correct cognition and increase the intensity of transfer payment from the exchequer.|