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乌鲁木齐市中小学教育设施服务水平均等化研究
石天戈
学位类型博士
导师张小雷
2015
学位授予单位中国科学院大学
学位授予地点北京
学位专业人文地理学
关键词教育设施服务水平 均等化 空间和社会差异 中小学校 乌鲁木齐
摘要在城市地理学逐渐开始“社会文化”转向的背景下,我国政府提出构建和谐社会和创建服务型政府。作为民生领域核心内容,研究基本公共服务均等化具有重要意义。乌鲁木齐市作为我国边境地区多民族集聚的典型代表城市,教育既是各族群众稳定发展、富民固边的基石,也是现代化建设中提升城市软实力的根本保障。本文以乌鲁木齐市中小学教育设施为例,探讨了教育服务设施的空间差异和社会差异,评价设施服务水平的均等化程度,并总结教育设施非均等化形成的机制,得出以下结论: 第一,乌鲁木齐市的现代教育事业起步于清朝末年,经历了民国时期的波动,在新中国成立时初具规模。建国后,乌鲁木齐市教育设施与教育服务蓬勃发展。总体呈现以下特征:计划经济时期教育设施数量稳步增长,空间分布相对均衡,规模偏小。改革开放后中小学教育设施大量合并,空间差异显现。非教育部门办学比重呈现先增长后降低的特征。 第二,乌鲁木齐市中小学教育设施分布呈现明显的“核心-边缘”结构特征,由城中心向西北方向拓展。高级别教育设施集中在天山区等老城区,民办学校集中在城乡结合部。教育设施可达性城乡差异明显,教育设施利用的社会差异集中表现为城乡差异,本地人口与外来人口差异,不同民族间差异和不同职业间的差异。 第三,乌鲁木齐市教育服务水平空间差异较小,处于相对均等水平。总体上服务水平由内城核心区向外围郊区逐渐降低。教育设施布局表现为区(县)内均等化程度优于全市均等化,区县间新城区(县)教育设施布局的差异性大于中心城区和郊区,教育设施的需求和供给在街道(乡镇)水平上存在空间错位。 教育服务水平的空间差异性有一定的历史演变规律,均等化发展需经历均匀阶段、均衡阶段和均质阶段三个阶段,并对应相应的城市化发展水平。现状乌鲁木齐市处于均衡化的前期阶段,由于城市的快速扩张,城市教育设施服务水平存在一定非均等性。教育服务的非均等性主要是由于城市历史发展惯性,城市在更新中的滤出机制、政府职能转变等因素引起的。为了能够构建均等的教育设施服务供给体系,需要在城市规划中进一步优化学校布局结构,加强教学设施标准化建设,政府由管理型政府向服务型政府转变,建立科学的以过程规划为主的城乡规划体系,并引入市场和社会的力量参与办学,提高学校服务水平。在具体的实施过程中,应加快城乡结合部学校的建设工作,鼓励中层教学管理人员交流,制定明确的符合市场期望的边远乡镇和代课教师补贴标准,并引入私立精英类学校参与学校服务水平建设竞争,改善全市教育服务的均衡化水平。
其他摘要After 2000 year, urban geography study returning to "social culture research", meanwhile, the construction of a harmonious society and creating a service-oriented government were proposed by Chinese government. The basic public services equalization was the core content of residents’ livelihood, and was a hot topic attracted researches. Education in Urumqi, a typical multi-ethnic city located in the northwest border areas of China, is not only the cornerstone of steady development and enriching all nationalities, but also a fundamental guaranteeing for improving city soft power in modernization process. This thesis focus on the education facilities serves ability equalization of primary, secondary and high schools in Urumqi, discuss the spatial distribution of education facilities and social-spatial diversity of services ability. The education facilities service equalization and forming mechanism of un-equalization are also discussed in this paper. This research obtained following significant findings: Firstly, modern education in Urumqi careered at the end of Qing dynasty, and then developed in the period of the Republic of China. It forms a integrated education hierarchy after the founding of new China. In planned economy period, the quantity of education facilities are growing steadily, and had an equilibrium spatial distribution relatively. After the reform and opening up, lots of education facilities was merged, and the spatial diversity arised. Secondly, the distribution of primary, secondary and high schools education facilities shows obviously "core - edge" structure characteristics in Urumqi, with new facilities concentrated in the Northwest urban areas. High level education facilities concentrate in old town of Tianshan district. The private schools concentrated in urban-rural interlaced zone. The accessibility of education facilities is different between urban and rural areas, and there were social disparity of education facilities utilizations between urban and rural areas, the local population and immigration, different ethnic groups, and different careers. Thirdly, the spatial difference of education service ability is small in Urumqi, which is at a relatively equalized level. Overall service ability from the urban center to the outer sub-urban gradually reduced. The equalization extent of education facilities inside evry district (county) is better than that among districts (county). Education service equalization has certain historical evolution rule, and corresponding with certain urbanization stages. Present situation of education service is at the early stage of equalization in Urumqi. Due to the rapid expansion of the Urumqi, the service ability of education facilities has an unequality feature. In order to build a more equality education service supply system, the government need further strengthen the construction of school, and change to a service-oriented management ways, establishing scientific urban and rural planning for process management, and attract market and society power to participate in education service improving.
学科领域人文地理学
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.xjlas.org/handle/365004/14620
专题研究系统_荒漠环境研究室
作者单位中科院新疆生态与地理研究所
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
石天戈. 乌鲁木齐市中小学教育设施服务水平均等化研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院大学,2015.
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