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塔里木河干流生态过程与水文过程耦合关系模拟研究
韩明
学位类型博士
导师赵成义
2015
学位授予单位中国科学院大学
学位授予地点北京
学位专业自然地理学
关键词塔里木河干流 生态水文过程 植被动态 生态输水 生态闸
摘要塔里木河干流流域生态环境极为脆弱,它的生态安全问题对国家社会经济的发展与稳定有着重大的影响。而水资源利用是塔里木河干流流域维持两岸植被以及社会经济可持续发展的关键要素。随着塔里木河综合治理工程的实施,如何从生态水文学的角度来认识及定量化描述综合治理工程对塔里木河干流生态水文过程的影响,对塔里木河干流后期的治理及可持续发展有着重要的意义。为此,本文在充分认识塔里木河干流主要的生态水文过程特征,了解塔里木河干流生态水文过程驱动要素的基础上,建立了塔里木河生态过程与水文过程的耦合模型,开展了塔里木河干流两岸自然生态系统以及人工生态系统的主要生态水文过程模拟,为塔里木河干流水资源配置和生态建设提供科学依据,从一个角度阐明了塔里木河干流两岸生态过程与水文过程的相互作用机制。研究结论如下: (1)通过分析塔里木河干流综合治理前后主要生态水文要素的时空变化,发现地下水位是塔里木河干流生态过程与水文过程耦合的关键水文要素,河流径流是塔里木河干流两岸生态水文过程的驱动力。河水-地下水-土壤水-植被之间的相互作用是塔里木河干流两岸主要的水文过程。同时综合治理工程对塔里木河干流两岸植被的种群结构、盖度、林龄结构、及生长状况等生态要素有显著的影响,其中植被生长状况的时空动态对水文要素变化最为敏感。 (2)在识别塔里木河干流主要生态过程与水文过程相互作用关系的基础上,对塔里木河干流的生态水文过程进行了概化,水文过程的概化主要考虑河流水头的演进、地表水漫溢的计算,河水-地下水,地下水-土壤水以及土壤水-植被之间的相互作用,生态过程的概化主要考虑植被生长过程及其与水文要素的相互作用过程。尝试将已经在干旱区应用广泛的模型模拟方法进行耦合,建立了塔里木河干流生态水文过程的模型框架,其中包括描述地下水运动模块,土壤水运动模块,洪水淹没模块,植被动态以及植被生长模型。 (3)定量模拟了塔里木河下游植被动态以及地下水位对生态输水的响应,模型能够较好的描述下游植被以及地下水位的动态变化。2000-2006年河流对地下水总的补给量为1.97×109 m3,占总输水量的87.4%,植物蒸腾以及土壤蒸发消耗的地下水量为1.04×109 m3,占总输水量的46.1%,地下水储量增加了1.05×109 m3。通过模型发现蒸散发是塔里木河下游重要的生态水文要素,它受地下水位以及植被生长状况的影响,随着地下水位以及植被生长状况的改善而逐渐增大。植被的恢复对水文过程也有显著的影响,能够增加3770880 m3 的蒸发量,减少3230336 m3的地下水储量,并显著降低地下水水位。模型能够为塔河下游输水策略的制定提供依据。 (4)所构建模型能够合理的模拟由生态闸放水引起的地下水-土壤水-淹没区等水文要素的动态变化,地下水位及植被生长状况在淹没区及非淹没区的差异性,以及由水分利用策略以及生物量分配所导致的植被生长状况在空间上的差异性。以生态闸控制区总体水文胁迫最小为原则,得到7月份为生态闸最适宜的放水时间,建立了生态闸放水量与生态闸控制区植被所受水分胁迫系数之间的关系曲线。在考虑胡杨、柽柳水分利用策略,及其生物量分配策略差异性的基础上,引入假设条件,研究了给定输水条件下可能的植被格局。 (5)对于农田土壤-作物生态水文过程,利用所构建的模型研究了漫灌以及滴灌条件下土壤-作物水分运动过程。当地下水位较深时,地下水位的抬升对棉花生长有促进作用,当地下水位较浅时,地下水位的抬升对棉花生长有负面作用。对于试验田,地下水是棉花生长的重要水分来源,大约有23%棉花生长所需的水分来自于地下水的补给。在覆膜滴灌条件下研究了覆膜对棉花根层土壤水分的影响,可知,覆膜是有效的节水措施,能够减少86.5%土壤蒸发,增加2.6%棉花蒸腾,增加25.6%的根层土壤水分渗漏。 综上,所构建的模型能够从植被生长状况与水文过程相互作用的角度,来定量化描述塔里木河干流的生态水文过程,能够为塔里木河干流的治理提供理论基础。
其他摘要The main Tarim River is located in an extreme arid region. It is very important to quantify the interaction between hydrological process and ecological process for this ecological fraige region. We first studied the dynamic of the eco-hydrological processes in past 60 years. And then the main hydrology process and ecological processes of main Tarim River was revealed. Based on this, the eco-hydrological model framework was bulid up, and the interaction between ecological and hydrological process in riprian ecosystem and artificial ecosystem of Tarim River was simulated. (1) We analyzed the dynamic of the hydropogy and ecology components along the main tarim river since 2000, such as: runoff, groundwater, community structure, and vegetation dynamic et al,. And we found that the interactions among river, shallow groundwater, soil water and vegetation are the key hydrology processses along the main Tarim River, and the vegetation dynamic driven by hydrology components (such as groundwater depth) is one of the major ecology processes. (2) An ecohydrological modeling framework, which incorporated the most widely used groundwater model(MODFLOW), soil water model(HYDRUS 1D), a flood inundation model, a vegetation dynamic model and a vegetation crop growth model, was build up to describe eco-hydrology processes along the main tarim river. Three case applications were carried out. (3) The reponses of groundwater and vegetation dynamic to the ecological water convergence in lower reach of Tarim River, could be well decribed by ecohydrological model framework. After 6 year water convergence, the total amount of groundwater recharge from river was 1.97×109 m3, taking 87.4% of the total amount of water convergence, the water consumed by evapotranspiration(bare soil evaporation and vegetation transpiration) was 1.04×109 m3, taking 46.1% of the amount of total water convergence, the groundwater storage was increased by 1.05×109 m3. And the evapotranspiration is an important component in the ecohydrology processes in lower reach of Tarim River. The evapotranspiration is impacted by the groundwater depth and the vegetation, and it is increased significantly, when groundwater table rising and vegetation recovering. The vegetation recovery has significant impact on hydrology processes, it could increase the evapotranspiration by 3770880 m3, and decrease the groundwater table. (4) At the mid reach of Tarim river, we found that model could well describe the dynamic of groundwater table, soil water content, inundation area, inundation depth and vegetation growth status in both spatial and temperoal, when water is realeased from gate. At the same time, model also could well descrbed the water stress difference between populus and tamarix due to the different biomass distribute stratigies. And we found that the best irrigation time is in July, which give smallest water stress suffered in this region. We also develop a function that describe the dependence of water stress on water release amount, and predicted the future vegetation pattens under water realease scenario based on some assumptions. (5) We studied the impact of groundwater depth on root zone water balance and cotton growth in cotton field with our model. We found that cotton growth and root zone water balance are very sensitive to the depth of the groundwater table and that cotton growth, in turn, affects subsurface water fluxes, such as capillary rise. Additional model simulations showed that groundwater is a major source of water for cotton growth. Compared to a control run that had no groundwater, 23% of crop transpiration is supplied by a capillary rise from groundwater, producing an increase in cotton yield by 20%. And the mulch could increase root water uptake could by 2.6%, reduced soil evaporation by 86.5%, reduce root zone soil water loss and increase drainage by 25.6%. So we could conclude that the ecohydrological model we build up could be used to help for water resource management and protecting ecology system in main Tarim River.
学科领域自然地理学
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.xjlas.org/handle/365004/14625
专题研究系统_荒漠环境研究室
作者单位中科院新疆生态与地理研究所
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
韩明. 塔里木河干流生态过程与水文过程耦合关系模拟研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院大学,2015.
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