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塔里木河流域土地利用及生态环境状况研究
杜清
学位类型硕士
导师徐海量
2015
学位授予单位中国科学院大学
学位授予地点北京
学位专业生态学
关键词土地利用 生态环境状况 塔里木河流域
摘要塔里木河是南疆人民的“母亲河”,流域生态环境对南疆地区的经济发展和社会稳定极其重要。随着流域人口增加,水土资源的不合理开发使得流域生态环境问题突出,引起政府及许多学者的关注。本研究将塔里木河流域“九源一干”作为研究区,通过遥感解译及野外验证,获取塔里木河流域1990、2000和2010年的土地利用/覆被遥感解译数据,分析各流域土地利用/覆被变化特征;利用环保总局发布的生态环境状况评价技术规范对塔里木河流域近20年生态环境状况变化特征进行评价;然后结合相关人口、经济和水文数据对典型流域生态环境变化原因进行初探。得到相关结论如下: (1)1990—2010年塔里木河流域耕地、盐碱地、水域湿地和建设用地面积变化最快,面积分别增加了61.97%、42.27%、23.43%和16.43%;林地、草地和沙地面积分别减少了12.80%、9.73%、和0.98%;裸石岩砾在整个研究时段保持不变。流域新增耕地面积主要来自于11.36%的草地、5.87%的林地、0.60%的沙地和0.29%的其它未利用地;新增水域湿地主要来自于0.87%的草地和0.79%的沙地;新增建设用地面积主要来自于0.24%的草地和0.98%的耕地;新增盐碱地主要来自于0.92%的草地和0.41%的林地。流域其它未利用地面积减少则主要被草地和耕地占用,其值分别占1990其它未利用地面积4.70%和0.29%。 (2)1990—2010年渭干库车河流域、迪那河流域、开孔河流域、阿克苏河流域生态环境状况指数处于35~55之间,生态环境状况属于一般;叶尔羌河流域、和田河流域、喀什噶尔河流域、克里雅河流域、渭干库车河流域及塔里木河干流生态环境状况指数处于20~35之间,生态环境状况属较差;将塔里木河流域九源一干作为整体,其生态环境状况在研究时段属于较差。 (3)塔里木河流域天然林草面积减少但人工林草、水库面积增加,使得塔里木河流域“九源一干”生态环境状况在近20年无明显变化,但不同子流域其环境变化特征各不相同。如喀什噶尔河流域、渭干库车河流域、车尔臣河流域、塔河干流在近20年里呈良性发展趋势;迪娜河流域、开孔河流域、阿克苏河流域、和田河流域、叶尔羌河流域总体呈退化趋势;克里雅河流域生态环境在近20年里基本不变。塔河下游在近20年里呈良性发展,塔河上游和中游总体呈退化趋势。 (4)通过对典型流域如开孔河流域、和田河流域分析可知,近年来由于人口增加、耕地扩张导致流域生态环境退化;塔河干流在综合治理后生态环境呈良性发展。虽然近20年里塔里木河流域整体生态环境基本维持不变但是从遥感数据可得出,流域天然林草面积不断减少、耕地和盐碱地面积扩张,水域面积增加也主要由渠系水库面积增加引起,这给流域生态环境的良性发展带来了巨大隐患。
其他摘要The Tarim River is the mother river of the people in southern Xinjiang, the ecological environment is very important to the economic development and social stability. As annual increment of population and unreasonable utilization of water and soil resources, the ecological environment problems become more serious than before, which has caught the attention of Governments and scholars. In this study, Tarim River Basin was chosen as the study area, through remote sensing interpretation and field verification, land use / cover data of the Tarim River Basin in 1990, 2000 and 2010 were obtained, then the features of land use/cover changes in different time of watershed were analyzed. Based on the technical criterion for ecoenvironmental status evaluation, the changes of ecological environment in Tarim River basin in recent 20 years were evaluated. Combined with the population, economic and hydrologic data analysis, the reasons of the ecological environment changes in Typical Watershed were discussed. The following conclusions were attained. (1) The areas of cultivated land, saline-alkali land, waters wetlands and construction land of Tarim River basin during 1990-2010 changed the fastest, which increased 61.97%, 42.27%, 23.43% and 16.43%, respectively; however, the areas of woodland, grassland and sandy area decreased 12.80%, 9.73% and 0.98%, respectively; additionally, the areas of bare rock boulders remained unchanged throughout the study period. Newly added cultivated land was mainly derived from the 11.36% of grass, 5.87% of woodland, 0.60% of sand and 0.29% of the other unused land; newly added water wetlands were mainly derived from 0.87% of grasslands and 0.79% of Sandy; new construction area was mainly derived from the 0.24% grass and 0.98% of cultivated land; new saline-alkali land was mainly derived from the 0.92% of grassland and 0.41% of woodlands; 4.7% and 0.29% of unused land transferred into grassland and arable land, respectively. (2) From 1990 to 2010, ecological environment index of Ugan-Kucha river basin, Dina river basin, Kaikong river basin and Akesu river basin was between 35 to 55,which was a general level. The ecological environment index of the others was between 20 to 35,which was a poor level. So, as a whole, the status of ecological environment of Tarim River Basin was the worse level. (3) The ecological environment of Tarim River basin in recent 20 years had no obvious change, but different sub-basins had different variations, such as Kaxgar River Basin, Ugan-Kucha river basin, Cheerchen river Basin and the mainsream of Tarim River turned to benign development gradually; Dina River basin, kaikong River basin, akesu River basin, Hetian river basin and Yarkant river Basin showed a trend of degradation; the ecological environment of Keriya river basin in near 20 years was basically unchanged. The ecological environment in downstream of Tarim River showed a good trend; the upper and middle reaches of the Tarim River showed unceasingly degenerations in the past 20 years. (4) By analyzing, we can conclude that ecological situation of Kaikong and Hetian River Basin has become worse due to the increasing population and expansion of farmland; however, with the comprehensive management conducting, the eco-environment of main stream is getting better. Even though the ecological situation of Tarim River Basin has changed little during the recent 20 years, which is based on RS data, natural grassland area is decreasing, cultivated land and saline-alkali land area are expanding and water area is increasing mainly caused by the increase of canal system reservoir area, all which brings a huge hidden trouble to the development of river basin ecological environment.
学科领域生态学
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.xjlas.org/handle/365004/14631
专题研究系统_荒漠环境研究室
作者单位中科院新疆生态与地理研究所
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
杜清. 塔里木河流域土地利用及生态环境状况研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院大学,2015.
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