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塔里木盆地南缘2000-2013年人工绿洲扩张过程研究
任晓
学位类型硕士
导师穆桂金
2015
学位授予单位中国科学院大学
学位授予地点北京
学位专业自然地理学
关键词塔里木盆地南缘 人工绿洲扩张 土地类型转化 天然绿洲 绿洲—荒漠过渡带
摘要土地利用/土地覆被变化研究在全球变化与区域可持续发展研究中占有重要地位。塔里木盆地南缘是典型的极端干旱生态脆弱区,其区域内人工绿洲扩张必然使得天然绿洲、绿洲—荒漠过渡带受到大幅度改造,从而改变区域土地利用与覆被结构,影响区域生态体系及绿洲生态系统安全。因此,本文立足于这一典型区域,采用Landsat卫星遥感影像与MODIS 13Q1遥感数据,判读4期土地利用/土地覆被情况,并对区域18个流域单元人工绿洲扩张特点与空间转化特征进行分析。同时,结合区域自然条件和人为活动,探讨人工绿洲扩张的主导因素。研究成果不仅可以为区域水土资源合理配置提供基础数据和科学依据,还对探讨绿洲生态系统安全和社会经济可持续发展的绿洲结构、规模及经营方式以及绿洲外围土地覆被的稳定性等问题有十分重要的现实意义。研究结果表明: (1)2000-2013年塔里木盆地南缘人工绿洲呈逐步扩张趋势,扩张总量达3.42×103km2,到2013年人工绿洲面积是2000年的1.31倍。但扩张过程存在阶段性差异:2005-2011时段扩张速率最大,2011-2013时段次之,2000-2005时段最小。各流域人工绿洲扩张程度差异较大,阶段性差异明显。 (2)2000-2013年塔南人工绿洲与天然绿洲、绿洲—荒漠过渡带、荒漠之间的转化频繁。自2000年到2013年塔南地区累计分别有1.53×103km2的天然绿洲、1.11×103km2的绿洲—荒漠过渡带和0.81×103km2的荒漠被转化为人工绿洲。同时存在着少量弃耕、河流改道等原因导致的人工绿洲向天然绿洲、绿洲—荒漠过渡带、荒漠的转化。 (3)在研究时段内,塔里木盆地南缘人工绿洲的扩张在区位空间特征上既呈现为边缘增长型,又有点源突变型。边缘增长型表现为各流域人工绿洲净增量与原有绿洲的密切关系,而点源突变型则表现为各流域人工绿洲变化的独立性以及增幅和增长速率的随机性。 (4)在研究时段内,人工绿洲扩张过程的阶段性和扩张空间区位的选择性表明,经济社会发展的阶段性行政政策是近十几年来人工绿洲建设的主导动因。人口增长、经济发展是促进人工绿洲扩张的重要原因。同时,包括灌溉技术、农艺技术和生物技术等相关技术发展有效促进了人工绿洲的快速扩张。
其他摘要Land use/land cover change research plays an important role in the study of global change and regional sustainable development. The south margin of Traim Basin is a typical ecologic-fragile zone of extreme drought. Artificial oasis expansion in the south margin of Tarim Basin is bound to make substantial transformation from natural oasis and transitional zone to oasis, which changes the structure of regional land use/land cover and influences the safety of regional and oasis ecological system. Therefore, Landsat satellite images and MODIS 13Q1 data were used to interpret 4 periods of land use/land cover, and analyzed the characteristics of artificial oasis expansion and spatial transformation of 18 watersheds. Combining with the regional natural conditions and human factors, we discussed the dominant factors of artificial oasis expansion. Research results can not only provide basic data and scientific basis for scientific planning and rational allocation of regional land and water resources, but also play an important practical significance for the scales, management patterns of oasis and stability of oasis peripheral land cover. The results showed that: (1) Artificial oasis in the south margin of Tarim Basin continuously expanded from 2000 to 2013, and the expansion was enlarged to 3.42×103 km2 in 2013, which was 1.31 times than that of artificial oasis in 2000. But the expansion process of artificial oasis showed differences in different periods: expansion rate was biggest during the period of 2005 to 2011, bigger during 2011 to 2013 and smallest during 2000 to 2005. Artificial oasis of each watershed expanded from 2000 to 2013, but the expansion degree and expansion stage had obvious differences. (2) The conversion from artificial oasis to natural oasis, transitional zone and desert in south margin of Tarim Basin was frequent from 2000 to 2013. And the areas of natural oasis, transitional zone and desert transformed into artificial oasis were 1.53×103 km2, 1.11×103 km2and 0.81×103 km2 respectively. At the same time, there was transformation from artificial oasis to natural oasis, transitional zone and desert due to the abandon of artificial oasis and river diversions. (3) In the study period, the spatial characteristics of artificial oasis expansion in the south margin of Tarim Basin were not only displayed as the growth along the margin of oasis, but also the mutant growth at point away from oasis. Edge growth performed the close relationship between artificial oasis increment and the original oasis, while the point mutant growth performed the independence of artificial oasis changes in each watershed and the randomness of growth degree and growth rate. (4) In the study period, the stage of the process of expansion and the selectivity of the spatial location of expansion showed that the staged administrative policy of the economic and social development was the main reason for the construction of artificial oasis in the last decade. Population growth and economic development were important reasons for artificial oasis expansion. At the same time, the development of the related techniques including irrigation technique, agronomic technique and biologic technique effectively promoted the rapid expansion of artificial oasis.
学科领域自然地理学
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.xjlas.org/handle/365004/14633
专题研究系统_荒漠环境研究室
作者单位中科院新疆生态与地理研究所
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
任晓. 塔里木盆地南缘2000-2013年人工绿洲扩张过程研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院大学,2015.
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