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北疆引水工程边坡防护现状调查与植物的适应性
刘赛
学位类型硕士
导师蒋进
2015
学位授予单位中国科学院大学
学位授予地点北京
学位专业环境工程
关键词工程边坡 调查 生态防护 植物适应性
摘要随着公路、铁路、水利等工程建设的快速发展,在工程建设过程中所采取的土石方挖填措施,导致形成了大量的裸露边坡,裸露的边坡对原有的地貌、植被、生态环境造成极大的破坏。利用生态护坡防治措施可以大大缩短边坡防护治理的时间,生态护坡还具有良好的经济效益、生态效益和社会效益。本文以新疆克拉玛依西干渠引水工程边坡为依托,对边坡的土壤盐分、水分的分布规律、边坡植物群落的分布情况进行调查。选取监测点对工程的地貌情况和边坡侵蚀状况进行调查与分析,根据西干渠的情况进行边坡的分类,并对造成边坡危害的原因进行分析。最后选取典型侵蚀边坡利用植被防护治理措施进行生态护坡实践,得出以下结论: 1)西干渠地区占优势的植被是荒漠植物,植物低矮稀疏、种类贫乏、结构简单。植物群落多为单优势种,建群植物明显主要有盐生假木贼等,群落的分布随生境的基质、水分和盐分的变化而变化。 2)西干渠地区降水稀少,蒸发强烈,地下水位高,土壤盐渍化严重。土壤水分的主要补给来源是大气降水和季节性冰雪融水。阴坡土壤含水量高于阳坡,自然地貌下的含水量最低。土壤有机质(0.27%)只有我国西北地区土壤有机质平均水平(0.5%)的一半,属于比较贫瘠的土壤。根据土壤含盐总量、氯化物含量和硫酸盐含量,在对11个监测点的调查中,有5个样点的土壤属于中盐渍土区甚至盐土区,对0-20 cm土壤分为0-2 cm,2-10 cm和10-20 cm三层进行研究,盐分的分布存在明显的差异,在10-20 cm层最高,0-2 cm层最低,即从土壤剖面的角度分析,土层0-20 cm中盐分的分布按照从上至下逐渐增大,从土壤盐渍化分级来讲,则从上至下依次为非盐渍土、弱盐渍土和中盐渍土,盐渍土是导致该地区植被稀疏的主要原因。 3)在植物适应性方面,西干渠地区边坡土壤质量低下,特别是土壤盐渍化严重,对植物生长产生一定胁迫。针对边坡土壤含盐量高的特点,结合生态恢复的需求,重点开展了耐盐及耐旱植物筛选、种植与灌溉试验研究,筛选出了适宜于边坡的耐盐、耐旱、抗逆性强的植物种,如柽柳、白刺等。最后,通过对边坡绿化一年后植被恢复情况的调查,验证了生态护坡的可行性。
其他摘要With the rapid development of highway, railway, water conservancy project construction, during the construction of earth fill and cut formed a large number of bare slope, destroyed the original topography vegetation, causing damage to the ecological environment. Slope itself has a certain amount of self-healing and the ability to recover, but the repair methods often take a long time, if the use of artificial ecological engineering measures so as to gradually recover, you can greatly reduce the time. Ecological restoration also has good economic, ecological and social benefits. This paper selects the West Main Canal water diversion project slope as study. Investigate the soil salinity, water distribution, distribution of plant communities of the slope. Select the monitoring point on the landscape situation and slope erosion engineering investigation and analysis. Classified the slopes according to the situation of the West Main Canal and analyze the causes of slope hazards. And select the typical use slope erosion vegetation practice of ecological protection, draw the following conclusions: 1) The dominant vegetation in West trunk area is desert plants, there are low sparse, the species is poor and simple structure. The plant community mostly is single dominant species; the plant construction group is significantly such as Anabasis salsa, the distribution changes with the matrix, the community habitat, the water and salt. 2) The rain precipitation is poor, the evaporation is strong, it is high water table, and the soil is salinization in west trunk area. The main source of soil moisture supply is precipitation and seasonal snow-melt. The moisture of soil in shady slope is higher than water content of sunny slope; the natural landscape moisture is the lowest. The soil organic matter (0.27%) is only half the average level of soil organic matter (0.5%) in Northwest China, belong a relatively poor soil. Based on the amount of soil salinity, chloride content and sulfate content ,select 11 monitoring points as the survey, five soil samples belonging to the saline soil area even saline area, takes the 0-20 cm of soil into 0-2 cm, 2-10 cm and 10-20 cm three studies, there are obvious differences in the distribution of salinity, the highest in 10-20cm layer, 0-2 cm layer of the lowest, that is from the perspective of the soil profile analysis, soil salinity increases gradually in accordance with the distribution of 0-20 cm from top to bottom. Takes the soil salinization classification as concerned, the top down, non-saline soil, saline soil and the weak soil, saline soil is the main cause of sparse vegetation in the area. 3) In terms of plant adaptability, the soil quality is low in west trunk slope area; especially the soil salinization is severe, caused certain stress on plant growth. For high soil salinity slope characteristics, combined with the needs of ecological restoration, we should focus on salt-tolerant and drought-tolerant plant selection, planting and irrigation in screened out suitable slope salt, drought resistance strong plant species such as Nitraria sibirica Pall. Finally, the vegetation was investigated to verify the accuracy of the slope site evaluation.
学科领域环境工程
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.xjlas.org/handle/365004/14638
专题研究系统_荒漠环境研究室
作者单位中科院新疆生态与地理研究所
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
刘赛. 北疆引水工程边坡防护现状调查与植物的适应性[D]. 北京. 中国科学院大学,2015.
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