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古尔班通古特沙漠南缘沙垄表面草本植物分布特征及生物量分配研究
丁俊祥
学位类型硕士
导师李彦
2015
学位授予单位中国科学院大学
学位授予地点北京
学位专业生态学
关键词古尔班通古特沙漠 草本植物 土壤理化性质 生活型 生物量分配 相关生长关系
摘要目前,对沙漠草本植物分布特征与环境因子间关系的认识多限定于局地、定性、某些物种,尚不足以揭示两者间复杂的关系。另外,生物量分配是植物生活史的重要内容,是理解植物响应或适应策略的基础。为深入理解荒漠草本植物与环境间的关系,本研究分别从沙垄表面草本植物分布特征及其与土壤理化因子的关系和不同生活型草本植物生物量分配特征两个方面进行分析,探讨了古尔班通古特沙漠草本植物对荒漠环境的适应特征。 结果表明:(1) 草本植物在沙垄底部、中部和顶部表现出明显的选择性分布,其中草本植物在沙垄底部共有22种,中部17种,顶部19种。(2) 在土壤水分、盐分、有机碳、全氮以及全磷含量较高的沙垄中、下部,草本植物具有较高的密度、盖度和地上生物量;在水分和养分贫瘠的沙垄顶部,草本植物密度、盖度和地上生物量较低,但具有较高的物种丰富度。(3) 土壤全氮、全磷对沙垄表面草本植物分布特征具有显著影响,尤其对草本植物盖度、物种多样性和地上生物量的影响最为显著。(4) 短命、类短命与一年生长营养期草本植物的生物量分配比例不尽相同,其中根冠比表现为:类短命植物 > 短命植物 = 一年生植物,三者的根冠比分别为1.676、0.157和0.148。(5) 6种优势草本植物(短命植物:小花荆芥、琉苞菊,类短命植物:粗柄独尾草、细叶鸦葱,一年生长营养期草本:雾冰藜、角果藜)根冠比与个体大小间存在显著的幂函数关系,根冠比随个体增大均表现出异速减小趋势;除粗柄独尾草外,其余5种优势草本叶片生物量分配比例随个体增大同样表现出异速减小趋势。(6) 短命植物(小花荆芥、琉苞菊)、类短命植物(粗柄独尾草、细叶鸦葱)和一年生长营养期草本植物(雾冰藜、角果藜)地上与地下生物量分配存在等速和异速生长的差异,但叶片与地下生物量间具有相同的生物量分配速率,表现出对干旱荒漠环境的趋同适应。
其他摘要The relationship between vegetation distribution and environmental factors is a central issue in ecological research. However, our understanding on their relationship at present is limited to qualitative, local, certain species, and is still not enough to reveal their complex relationship. Additionally, biomass allocation is an important theme in plant life history, and provides the basis for understanding the response or adaptive strategies of plants. Consequently, to further understand the relationship between herbaceous plants and desert environment, this research was carried out based on the following two aspects. Firstly, the distribution characteristics of herbaceous plants on sand dune and its relationship with soil physical-chemical properties were investigated. Secondly, the biomass allocation patterns were examined among three life-form herbaceous plants (i.e., ephemerals, ephemeroids and annuals). Major findings: (1) Distribution of herbaceous plant in different parts of sand dune exhibited a clear selectivity. The species of herbaceous plants on the bottom, middle and top of sand dune were 22, 17 and 19, respectively. (2) As soil in the middle and lower part of sand dune had higher contents of water, salinity, organic carbon, total nitrogen and total phosphorus, which resulted in higher density, coverage and aboveground biomass of herbaceous plants. While, at the top of the sand dune where the soil water and nutrient content were poor, the corresponding herbaceous plants was of higher species diversity but lower coverage and aboveground biomass. (3) Total nitrogen and total phosphorus of the soil, acted as critical factors, imposed significant influences on the distribution characteristics of herbaceous plants (p < 0.01), especially the coverage, species diversity and aboveground biomass of herbaceous layer. (4) Ephemerals, ephemeroids and annuals had difference in the biomass allocation ratios, among which R/S of the three life-form plants showed that: ephemeroids > ephemerals = annuals, and the value of R/S were 1.676, 0.157 and 0.148, respectively. (5) For the six dominant species (ephemeral plants: Nepeta micrantha, Hyalea pulchella, ephemeroids: Eremurus inderiensis, Scorzonera pusilla, annuals: Bassia dasyphylla, Ceratocarpus arenarius), the relationship between R/S and plant size was remarkable power function, and R/S declined significantly with increasing plant size. Additionally, apart from Eremurus inderiensis, the leaf biomass ratio of the rest five dominant species declined significantly with increasing plant size. (6) Ephemerals (Nepeta micrantha, Hyalea pulchella), ephemeroids (Eremurus inderiensis, Scorzonera pusilla) and annuals (Bassia dasyphylla, Ceratocarpus arenarius) had difference in allometric relationship between root and shoot. While leaf and root of above three life-form herbaceous plants all showed an isometric relationship, which indicated they had strong functional convergence to arid desert environment.
学科领域生态学
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.xjlas.org/handle/365004/14642
专题研究系统_荒漠环境研究室
作者单位中科院新疆生态与地理研究所
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
丁俊祥. 古尔班通古特沙漠南缘沙垄表面草本植物分布特征及生物量分配研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院大学,2015.
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