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中国沙冬青属植物的地理分布及生境特征分析
刘美
学位类型硕士
导师吴世新
2015
学位授予单位中国科学院大学
学位授予地点北京
学位专业地图学与地理信息系统
关键词新疆沙冬青 蒙古沙冬青 地理分布 群落特征 生境特征
摘要沙冬青属(Ammopiptanthus Cheng f.) 隶属豆科(Leguminosae)蝶形花亚科(Papilionaceae)黄华族(Thermosideae),是亚洲荒漠唯一的常绿阔叶灌木,属下有2个种:新疆沙冬青(Ammopiptanthus.nanus)和蒙古沙冬青(Ammopiptanthus. mongolicus)。过去,对于沙冬青属植物的研究多是针对某一种沙冬青的区系分布、生理生态特性、抗逆性机理、应用价值等方面,缺乏从大尺度范围对比分析2种沙冬青的地理分布、生境特征等方面的研究。全面、系统地掌握沙冬青属植物的地理分布现状及生境特征,将有助于该属植物生物多样性保护和可持续利用。 本文采用资料收集与野外调查相结合的方法,确定了沙冬青属植物的地理分布范围以及时空变化特征;从群落物种组成和种群年龄结构两方面分析了2种沙冬青的群落特征,同时,对2种沙冬青群落中主要物种的光谱特征进行了分析,利用光谱一阶导数、倒高斯模型模拟的方法比较了2种沙冬青叶片光谱特征的差异;从地形、气候、土壤3方面分析了沙冬青属植物的生境特征,利用单因素方差分析(One-way Analysis of Variance, one-way ANOVA)方法比较了2种沙冬青生境因子的差异,并通过主成分分析(Principal Component Analysis, PCA)方法确定了限制沙冬青属植物分布的主要因子。得到如下结论: (1) 新疆沙冬青仅分布于新疆克孜勒苏柯尔克孜州境内,分布范围为38°55′- 40°9′ N,74°42′- 76°43′ E;蒙古沙冬青主要分布在内蒙中西部、宁夏北部和甘肃北部,分布范围为36°27′- 42°01′ N,102°36′ - 108°49′ E。2种沙冬青在地理分布上不连续,以条带状或块状方式呈现出小聚集的分布状态。 (2) 对比新疆沙冬青和蒙古沙冬青分布范围的变化(1958-2014年),发现人类活动是导致2种沙冬青属植物分布面积减少的主要因素。自然保护区对蒙古沙冬青的生存具有很好的保护作用,新疆沙冬青生存范围狭窄且受人类破坏严重,亟需对其建立自然保护区。 (3) 新疆沙冬青群落包含17科31属36种,蒙古沙冬青群落包含20科46属58种。2种沙冬青的种群年龄结构完整,其中,新疆沙冬青中龄和老龄个体占多数,幼龄个体较少,呈现老龄化趋势,蒙古沙冬青老龄个体较少,种群发展稳定。新疆沙冬青在冬季仍具有明显的绿色光谱特征,与群落中其它物种区别明显;2种沙冬青的光谱反射率波形接近,但由叶片结构和物质组成的差异,两者仍存在明显区别。 (4) 新疆沙冬青分布区的地貌类型为砾石质山坡、石质洪积扇冲沟、河漫滩和较开阔的山间沙质古老干河床,海拔2100 - 2700 m,坡度5- 40°,不受坡向限制;年平均温度3.9 - 6.4℃,年降水量148 - 168 mm,Holdridge生物温度为7.7℃;土壤类型包括石膏棕漠土、石灰性草甸土和淡棕钙土,整体为弱碱性、肥力低。蒙古沙冬青分布区的地貌类型为沙漠边缘固定或半固定沙丘、砂砾质荒漠、低山及低山丘陵、冲洪积平原,海拔900 - 1900 m,坡度5 - 35°,各坡向均有分布;年平均温度5.2 - 8.8℃,年平均降水量53 - 252 mm,Holdridge生物温度为9.7℃;土壤类型包括淡棕盖土、风沙土、灰漠土和石质土,土壤呈碱性。气候指标中,限制新疆沙冬青分布是热量因子,限制蒙古沙冬青分布的主要是水分和湿度因子;土壤因子中,对新疆沙冬青分布起主要作用的土壤的pH、总盐、全磷,蒙古沙冬青的为有机质和全氮。 本文获取了沙冬青属植物的地理分布和生境特征,但以分布点的方式表示该属植物的分布范围及时空变化存在一定的局限性。沙冬青属植物独特的光谱特征为遥感识别提供了依据,但要真正实现沙冬青的遥感监测中仍存在困难,需要解决干旱区植被盖度低、生长环境复杂等因素造成的遥感数据混合象元的问题。地形产生的小气候环境对植物分布有较大影响,本文由于采用的地形、气候数据分辨率较低,未能深入分析地形、气候与沙冬青分布之间的关系,今后可以从小尺度范围对沙冬青属植物的分布与地形、气候之间的关系作进一步的探讨。
其他摘要Ammopiptanthus (Cheng f.) is a genus of flowing plants in the legume family, a typical is evergreen broadleaf shrub in the deserts of central Asia. It is comprised of two species: A.mongolicus and A.nanus. Both are half endemic and relict species in China. In the past decades, most researches were focus on A.mongolicus, studying about its flora distribution, physiology and ecological characteristics, resistance mechanism, while few studies on large-scale comparative of two kinds of range geographic distribution, habitat characteristics are available. Knowing the Ammopiptanthus’s distribution and habitat characteristics comprehensively and systematically is useful for its biological diversity conservation and sustainable utilization. In this study, literature data and field survey data were used to complete Ammopiptanthus’s geographical distribution and analysis the Ammopiptanthus’s community characteristics, including species composition and population age structure; First derivative and inverted Gaussian model simulation method were used for comparing the spectral differences between A.nanus and A.mongolicus; Using one-way Analysis of Variance(one-way ANOVA) method to compare the two species of Ammopiptanthus’s habitat differences, including topography, climate and soil characteristics; The Principal Component Analysis(PCA) method was used to analysis the main factors which affecting Ammopiptanthus’s distribution. The main conclusions are as follows: (1) A.nanus only grew in Kizilsu Kirghiz Autonomous Prefecture of Xingjiang, and the distribution range was 38°55′-40°9′ N, 74°42′-76°43′ E. A.mongolicus mainly distributed in the western of Inner Mongolia , northern of Gansu and Ningxia, and the distribution range was 36°27′- 42°01′ N, 102°36′ - 108°49′ E. Both of them were discontinuous in geographical distribution, showing strip or block mode. (2) Human activities are the main factors that lead to a reduction of Ammopiptanthus’s distribution area, through comparing the distribution range of Ammopiptanthus from 1958 to 2014. A.mongolicus in Nature Reserve were well protected from damage of human activities, A.nanus’s distribution area is narrow, and its habitat was damaged severely. Therefore, it is urgent to establish Nature Reserve for A.nanus, in order to avoid its extinction. (3) The community of A.nanus included 17 families, 31 genera and 36 species, while A.mongolicus included 20 families, 46 genera and 58 species. The age structure of the two population Ammopiptanthus was relatively completed. As time goes on, the A.nanus population showed an aging trend, because of the majority middle-age and elderly individuals and fewer young individuals. While, the A.mongolicus population was stable as the large number of young and middle-age individuals. A. nanus and A. mongolicus had similar spectral curve shape, but their red edge position was different due to differences in leaf structure, material composition and environment condition. A.nanus kept spectral characteristics of green vegetation in January, which was significant different from Ephedra przewalskii and Reaumuria soongorica in near infrared band (780-1300 nm). Thus, desert species could be identified by using remote sensing images which taken in winter. (4) In the growing areas of A.nanus, the altitude range was from 2100 to 2700 m, the slope was from 5 to 45 degree, the average annual temperature was from 3.9 to 6.4℃, the average annual precipitation was from 148 to 168 mm, the Holdridge biological temperature was 7.7℃; The soil was slightly alkaline and the types included rocky soil salinity soil, gypsum brown desert soil, light lime meadow soil and light brown soil. In the growing areas of A.mongolicus, the altitude range was from 990 to 1900 m, the slope was 3 to 40 degree, the average annual temperature was from 5.2 to 8.8℃, the average annual precipitation was from 53 to 252 mm, the Holdridge biological temperature was 9.7℃; The soil was alkaline and the types included calcium earth, wind sand, calcareous gray desert soil, gray-brown desert soil, rocky soil and rocky soil salinity. The analysis of PCA showed that the limiting factors of A.nanus’s distribution were heat indicators, pH, total salt and phosphorus content, while the A.mongolicus’s are water, humidity, organic matter and total nitrogen content. In this study, using points to represent Ammopiptanthus’s geographical distribution is unable to quantitative analysis temporal variation. In future study, much attention should be paid to the application of remote sensing monitoring species in arid zones. In addition, high resolution data should be used for studying relationship between plants and topography, climate, because microclimate generated topography has great influence on the distribution of plants.
学科领域地图学与地理信息系统
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.xjlas.org/handle/365004/14654
专题研究系统_荒漠环境研究室
作者单位中科院新疆生态与地理研究所
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
刘美. 中国沙冬青属植物的地理分布及生境特征分析[D]. 北京. 中国科学院大学,2015.
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