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塔里木盆地沙拐枣属植物的分布式样及其生态适应
刘娜
学位类型硕士
导师管开云 ; 冯缨
2015
学位授予单位中国科学院大学
学位授予地点北京
学位专业植物学
关键词沙拐枣 地理分布 气候 土壤 Maxent模型
摘要以塔里木盆地沙拐枣属的,塔里木沙拐枣(Calligonum roborovskii A. Los.)、库尔勒沙拐枣(Calligonum kurlaense Z. M. Mao)、英吉沙沙拐枣(Calligonum yengisaric Z. M. Mao)、若羌沙拐枣(Calligonum juochiange Liou f.)和塔克拉玛干沙拐枣(Calligonum taklimakanense B. R. Pan et G. M. Shen)五种植物为研究对象,通过沙拐枣野外居群调查,结合查阅标本和相关文献资料,确定五种沙拐枣的地理分布范围、种群分布格局及种间联接性;并对五种沙拐枣分布区的气候和土壤特征进行均值差异分析、主成分分析,探究五种沙拐枣的地理分布与气候和土壤特征的关系;在此基础上,应用MaxEnt模型预测五种沙拐枣的潜在适生区。为沙拐枣属植物的保护、恢复和合理利用提供理论依据。研究结果如下: 1. 对五种沙拐枣野外居群的调查研究发现,塔里木沙拐枣在塔里木盆地广泛分布,库尔勒沙拐枣、英吉沙沙拐枣、若羌沙拐枣及塔克拉玛干沙拐枣呈狭域分布。塔里木沙拐枣最北到托克逊的库米什(88.81°E,42.34°N),最南到策勒县努尔乡(81.01°E,36.30°N),最西到疏附县乌帕尔乡(75.19°E,39.25°N),最东到罗布泊以东的库鲁克塔格山(92.42°E,40.40°N)。库尔勒沙拐枣在库尔勒、轮台及尉犁县西尼尔镇等地区有分布;英吉沙沙拐枣在英吉沙县、叶城县、莎车县等地区有分布;若羌沙拐枣仅分布在若羌县分布;塔克拉玛干沙拐枣在塔中(83.87°E,38.87°N,1107.3m)有分布。同时,五种沙拐枣各种间联系分析结果显示,塔里木沙拐枣分别与库尔勒沙拐枣、英吉沙沙拐枣、若羌沙拐枣呈显著负相关分布,为相互竞争的生态关系,有可能发生替代。 2. 种群分布格局分析发现,塔里木沙拐枣、库尔勒沙拐枣、英吉沙沙拐枣和塔克拉玛干沙拐枣在10m×10m和20m×20m两种尺度上均为聚集分布类型,而若羌沙拐枣则在10m×10m尺度上趋于较均匀分布,在20m×20m尺度上呈现聚集分布。同时,五种沙拐枣的聚集强度较低,其大小排序为库尔勒沙拐枣>塔里木沙拐枣>英吉沙沙拐枣>若羌沙拐枣>塔克拉玛干沙拐枣。 3. 五种沙拐枣的温暖指数(WI)均介于85~180℃·mon之间,都属于暖温带分布类型。塔里木沙拐枣对水分适应性幅度较大,其分布区年均降水量在7.1~88.7mm之间,最适范围为25.3~74.2mm。若羌沙拐枣(AP=23.77mm)与塔克拉玛干沙拐枣(AP=18.24mm)所处环境较库尔勒沙拐枣(AP=60.36mm)和英吉沙沙拐枣(AP=62.23mm)更为干旱,二者耐旱性较后者强。沙拐枣分布区土壤类型主要是含盐分较高的棕漠土。其pH值在8.0左右,偏碱性,土壤表层的有机质含量很少1.2~8.0g·kg-1,盐分含量较高1.2~10 g·kg-1。四种狭域分布沙拐枣气候、土壤特征的均值差异分析发现,低温因子、水分因子、盐碱性是影响他们各自独立分布的主要原因。主成分分析发现,限制沙拐枣分布的主要生态条件是气候条件中的高温因子、水分因子,其次是土壤性质方面。对于若羌沙拐枣以及分布环境与其相似的塔克拉玛干沙拐枣,水分对其限制作用高于温度。 4. 塔里木沙拐枣潜在适生区仍集中在塔里木盆地及甘肃、内蒙和青海部分地区,与原有的标本采集点及历史记录点相吻合。若羌沙拐枣的原有分布点仅在若羌地区,其潜在适生区仍然集中在若羌、且末、吐鲁番等较干旱地区,潜在适生区与原有分布点稍有差异。库尔勒沙拐枣原有分布点仅在库尔勒地区,但其潜在适生区在北疆的克拉玛依,东疆的吐鲁番和哈密地区,南疆的库尔勒、喀什、和田等地区都有分布;潜在适生区与原有分布点差异较大。英吉沙沙拐枣原有分布点仅在喀什的英吉沙、莎车、叶城地区,但其潜在适生区在北疆的精河、东疆的吐鲁番、南疆的喀什等地区间断分布,潜在适生区与原有分布点也存在较大差异。沙拐枣分布区的水分因子是影响其潜在适生区预测的关键。
其他摘要Five species of Calligonum L. in Tarim Basin, Calligonum roborovskii A. Los., Calligonum kurlaense Z. M. Mao, Calligonum yengisaricum Z. M. Mao, Calligonum juochiangense Liou f. and Calligonum taklimakanense B. R. Pan et G. M. Shen were chosen as research materials. Their distribution range, population spatial distribution patterns, and interspecific associations were confirmed by field population survey, combined with consulting specimen and relevant literature information. The associations between the five species’ distribution with their climatic and soil characteristics were explored through the mean variance analysis and the principal component analysis. The MaxEnt model was used to predict the potential distribution of the five species. All these results could supply theoretical basis for the protection, revegetation, and reasonable utilization of Calligonum L. The results of the study were as follows: 1. Survey of five species’ wild populations of Calligonum L. showed that C. roborovskii was widely distributed in Tarim Basin, but C. kurlaense, C. yengisaricum, C. juochiangense and C. taklimakanense presented narrow distribution. The most north distribution boundary of C. roborovskii was kumishi town of Tuokexun county (88.81°E,42.34°N), the most south distribution boundary was Nuer village of Cele county (81.01°E,36.30°N), the most west distribution boundary was Wupaer village of Shufu county (75.19°E,39.25°N), the most east distribution boundary was Kuruketag Mountain in the east of Lop Nur (92.42°E,40.40°N). C. kurlaense mainly distributed in Kuerle, Luntai and so on. C. yengisaricum just distributed in Yingjisha, Yecheng, Shache and so on. C. juochiangense just distributed in Ruoqiang. C. taklimakanense distributed in Middle Taklimakan (83.87°E,38.87°N,1107.3m). Besides, the analysis of the connectivity between each species showed that, the distribution of C. roborovskii with that of C. kurlaense, C. yengisaricum and C. juochiangense were significantly negative correlation respectively. They maybe replace each other in the future. 2. The analysis of population distribution pattern showed that C. roborovskii, C. kurlaense, C. yengisaricum and C. taklimakanense were all aggregated distribution at both scales 10m×10m and 20m×20m. C. juochiangense presented aggregated distribution at the larger scale of 20m×20m, but tended to uniform distribution at the smaller scale of 10m×10m. And the aggregated strength of the five species of Calligonum L. were lower, they were C. kurlaense, C. roborovskii, C. yengisaricum, C. juochiangense and C. taklimakanense in the order from great to small. 3. Five species’ warm index were all between 85~180℃·mon, so they were all belong to the warm temperate zone. The adaptability of C. roborovskii to moisture was larger. The annual precipitation of its distribution area was from 7.1mm to 88.7mm, and the optimum range was from 25.3mm to 74.2mm. The habitat of C. juochiangense and C. taklimakanense were more arid than that of C. kurlaense and C. yengisaricum, the two formers had stronger drought tolerance than the two latters. The soil type of the five species main was brown desert soil with high salinity. Its pH was alkaline (8.0). It had lower content of organic matter (1.2~8.0g·kg-1) in the top soil, and higher salinity content (1.2~10g·kg-1). Besises, comparative analysis supported that low temperature factor, moisture factor, saline and alkaline were the main reasons leading to the independent distribution of C. kurlaense, C. yengisaricum, C. juochiangense and C. taklimakanense. The principal component analysis showed that, the main factors limiting the distribution range of the five species were high temperature factor and moisture factor, followed by soil properties. For C. juochiangense and C. taklimakanense, the limit strength of moisture factor was stronger than temperature. 4. The potential distribution areas of C. roborovskii were located in Tarim Basin and some regions of Gansu, Inner Mongolia, and Qinghai, which was consistent with the collection areas of its specimens and the history distribution points. The potential distribution areas of C. juochiangense were still located in Ruoqiang, Qiemo and Turban regions, which had little difference with its original distribution areas (Ruoqiang). However, the potential distribution areas of C. kurlaense were Karamay of nortern Xinjiang, Turban and Camul of eastern Xinjiang, and Korla, Kashgar and Hotan of sorthern Xinjiang, which had larger difference with its original distribution areas (Korla). The potential distribution areas of C. yengisaricum were Jinghe of northern Xinjiang, Turban of eastern Xinjiang, Kashgar and Hotan of sorthern Xinjiang, which also had larger difference with its original distribution areas (Yingjisha, Shache, Yecheng of Korla). MaxEnt couldn’t figure out the potential distribution areas of C. taklimakanense, for it only distributed in the place of type specimen. Moisture factor was identified to be the key factor of the potential distribution areas of Calligonum L.
学科领域植物学
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.xjlas.org/handle/365004/14655
专题研究系统_荒漠环境研究室
作者单位中科院新疆生态与地理研究所
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
刘娜. 塔里木盆地沙拐枣属植物的分布式样及其生态适应[D]. 北京. 中国科学院大学,2015.
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