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航空影像三维重建技术研究
马晨
学位类型硕士
导师杨辽
2015
学位授予单位中国科学院大学
学位授予地点北京
学位专业测绘工程
关键词倾斜航空影像 空中三角测量 三维建模 纹理映射
摘要“数字城市”的研究与实践已十分广泛,应用于各行各业,常规的建模方法自动化程度低,耗费大量的人力和工作时间。普通航空影像的下视镜头仅能获得主体建筑的高度信息、顶部纹理信息,在获取建筑物的侧面纹理上能力有限,不能满足三维数据在城市建筑物获取的要求。 倾斜摄影测量技术是近年来快速发展使用的一项高新型技术,倾斜航空摄影可以同时从多个角度采集地面影像,克服了传统航空摄影技术只能从垂直角度进行拍摄获得顶部信息的局限性,从而使地物的实际情况更加真实。通过倾斜摄影技术实现城市的三维建模是当前三维城市建模的一种发展趋势。 针对倾斜航空影像的特点,本文介绍基于倾斜航空影像的三维重建方法,包括倾斜航空影像空中三角测量,点云构网与纹理映射,三维模型的精度评定。主要研究内容如下: (1) 倾斜航空影像具有较大的倾角和高重叠度的特点,传统的空中三角测量对于航拍影像的角度姿态要求较为严格,所以并不适用于倾斜航空影像的空三加密。本文结合计算机视觉的方法对倾斜影像空三加密,对影像进行特征点的提取与匹配,确立影像之间的空间关系,解算外方位元素。 (2)对倾斜影像的空中三角测量的结果进行精度评价,结果表明三种镜头组合中五镜头的空三加密结果最佳,四镜头重叠度最低时加密精度值最差。并分析了空三加密误差来源,有航飞质量、外业控制点点位选取是否合适、内业人员操作不当等。 (3)阐述了点云的三角剖分与三维模型的纹理映射,对于三维模型纹理映射,针对所获影像的姿态特点,自动选择并映射最优纹理,提高了仿真效果。 (4)对重建三维模型从平面精度、高程精度、表现精度三个方面进行了精度评价,结果表明重建的三维模型符合标准模型的要求。
其他摘要In recent years, as the demand for three-dimensional model of the city, the traditional down-looking lens, can obtain height information and texture information at the top of the main building, but the nadir shot from aerial fly is inadequate to acquire enough side texture information for 3D modeling. Compared with traditional aerial photography, oblique aerial photography can collecting ground images from multiple angles at the same time, thereby overcoming the limitations of traditional aerial photography that can only be taken from a vertical angle. Oblique aerial photography can reflect the surface features in more high-fidelity. Currently, oblique photography technology based 3d city modeling and reconstruction is a development trend of three-dimensional city modeling. For oblique aerial images, this paper describes a method to reconstruct three-dimensional scene based on computer vision. The main technical part is made up of feature extraction, image posture calibration, multi-angle imaging dense matching, etc. The specific tasks are described in the following: (1) The oblique aerial image has the characteristics of large dip Angle and a high degree of overlapping regions. The perspective of the traditional aerial triangulation for aerial image needs more stringent requirements, and it is not suitable for aerial triangulation for oblique aerial images. We improve the process of aerial triangulation via computer vision approach in the first step. Then we extract the image feature points, spatial relationships between image and calculating the exterior orientation elements. (2) We get the result of aerial triangulation using oblique aerial images. The combination of different lenses and the different overlapping degree of images, which have a direct impact for the accuracy of image dense matching. Our experiments show that the modeling results of five lenses of aerial triangulation is the best, and the accuracy of using four lens is weak due to the lower overlapping degree. Furthermore, we have done the systematic analysis of the accuracy of aerial triangulation as well as the sources of several errors which affect the result of the experiment, such as flight quality, whether the control point selection is appropriate, the improper operation, and so on. (3) The paper introduces the method of Delaunay triangulation for point clouds. Compared with several methods of point cloud subdivision, elaborates the method of texture mapping. (4) We analyze the accuracy of three-dimensional model as well as the sources of several errors which affect the result of the experiments. According to the accuracy evaluation of reconstruction of 3D model in plane accuracy, elevation accuracy and performance accuracy. An fact can be found that the result of reconstruction of 3D model meet standard model requirements.
学科领域测绘工程
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.xjlas.org/handle/365004/14658
专题研究系统_荒漠环境研究室
作者单位中科院新疆生态与地理研究所
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
马晨. 航空影像三维重建技术研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院大学,2015.
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