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天山北坡绿洲化过程与时空变化特征
宋洋
学位类型硕士
导师包安明
2015
学位授予单位中国科学院大学
学位授予地点北京
学位专业测绘工程
关键词天山北坡绿洲 绿洲化与荒漠化 时空变化过程 驱动分析
摘要天山北坡是西北干旱区重要的绿洲基地,天山北坡的发展影响着新疆的稳定性和区域经济的发展,是新疆最具发展潜力的地区,近几十年以来,天山北坡绿洲人口的增加、社会经济的发展和水土资源的大规模开发利用以及长期农耕活动,促进了绿洲的发展,同时也出现了一系列的生态环境问题。因此,研究绿洲时空变化过程,准确把握绿洲化与荒漠化发展变化的特征与规律,探讨绿洲时空变化的驱动机制,了解天山北坡绿洲化、荒漠化过程及其对人类活动、自然因素变化的响应机制,对于解决绿洲化过程中出现的一些问题和绿洲的可持续发展具有重大现实意义。 本文运用定性与定量相结合的方法,基于运用1960-2010年间6个典型时期的多源数据(地形图与遥感影像数据)所提取的绿洲信息,从面积和空间分布两方面,结合绿洲退缩与扩张、绿洲化区域差异以及绿洲景观格局变化等,比较分析了50年来绿洲的时空变化过程,揭示了绿洲动态变化的趋势,并结合实地调查、统计和文献资料,从自然和人文因素两方面探讨了绿洲时空变化的驱动机制。主要研究结果如下: (1)经过50年的发展,天山北坡绿洲大面积扩张,绿洲规模显著扩张,绿洲面积由1960年42416.38km²增加到2010年的116692.75km²,其中天然绿洲面积增加了74276.37km²,人工绿洲增加了23857.25km²,天然绿洲的扩张面积比较大,而人工绿洲的扩张速率相对更快。 (2)绿洲扩张与退缩同时发生,退缩区与扩张区相互交叠,但是绿洲化过程较荒漠化过程占绝对优势。绿洲扩张主要集中在2000年前,2000年后绿洲扩张步伐明显减缓。天然绿洲扩张的主导过程是草地的扩张,草地扩张主要集中在伊犁州、乌鲁木齐和昌吉州的南部,另外林地的扩张集中在乌鲁木齐、塔城地区和昌吉州的北部。人工绿洲扩张的主导过程是耕地的扩张,耕地扩张主要集中在博州、塔城地区和昌吉州的中部地区。城镇建设用地的扩张主要集中在昌吉州、塔城地区和乌鲁木齐。 (3)绿洲扩张过程各地区绿洲相对变化率和动态度有很大差异。1980年之前天山北坡东部地区的绿洲相对变化率较高,1980年之后绿洲相对变化率较高的地区开始向天山北坡西部偏移。各地区天然绿洲与人工绿洲的变化情况与绿洲整体变化情况不同。2000年之前五家渠、昌吉州和克拉玛依等地区的天然绿洲动态度较高,而2000年之后各地区天然绿洲的动态度基本相同。各地区人工绿洲的变化情况比天然绿洲要复杂的多,每个时段各地区的人工绿洲动态度都在交替不断的波动变化。 (4)绿洲变化受自然因素和人文因素的共同作用,有自然因素和人文因素共同作用而形成的合理推动了绿洲的变化。以降水、气温、径流量和日照时数等为表征的干旱区自然环境和气候背景是绿洲变化最基本的驱动因素。近几十年,人口增长、经济发展、农业科技进步与投入等为代表的人文因素是影响绿洲变化的最根本动力。自然因素中对绿洲变化起主要驱动作用的是年平均气温,因为天山北坡蒸发量远远大于降水量,所以年平均降水的驱动作用比年平均气温要弱。其中人文因素中对绿洲变化起主要驱动作用的是人口与经济因素,如人口数、国内生产总值、农业科技进步与投入等因素。
其他摘要Oasis is survival and development base of the people in arid area. Its changes have been the core research of biogeographic processes and human activities. The region of northern slope of the Tianshan Mountains is an important oasis in whole arid area, in the meantime, the development of this region affects directly the oasis’ stability and regional economic development, it is also the most promising areas in XinJiang. In recent decades, the growth of population and the development of economy and the exploitation of resources and the development of agriculture in northern slope of the Tianshan Mountains promote the expansion of oasis in this region, however, it cause a series of ecological and environmental problems. Therefore, there is a great practical significance for the suppression of desertification and promoting sustainable development of oases to study the oasis’ development and change, to investigate the driving mechanism, to learn the oasification and desertification processes in arid area and its response to human activities and climate change, to develop ecological security strategy. This research uses a combination of qualitative and quantitative methods, basing the extracted oasis information which used multi-source remote sensing image data in 6 typical periods from 1960 to 2010, combining the decline and expansion of oasis, oasification regional differences, and oasis landscape pattern changes, this paper comparatively analyzes the oasis’ spatial-temporal processes from the size and spatial distribution, and it reveals the oasis’ dynamic trends. Finally, combining with field surveys, statistics and literature, it discussed the driving forces mechanism of the oasis’ spatial-temporal change processes from the natural and human factors. The main results are as follows: 1、0ver the past 50 years, oasis simultaneous expansion and retreat. The oasis’ scale obviously expand in northern slope of the Tianshan Mountains. The oasis’ area increased from 42416.38 km² in 1960 to 116692.75km²,among these increased, the area of natural oasis had an increase of 74276.37 km²and artificial oasis had an increase of 23857.25 km². Natural oasis’ area had increased by 200.01%, and artificial oasis’ area had increased by 176.59%. The area of natural had a larger increase, however, the growth rate of natural oasis is larger than natural oasis. 2、The decline and expansion areas of oasis are overlap. Throughout all the study period, the process of oasification is absolutely dominant compared with desertification. The period before 2000 is the fastest-ever period of oasis expansion, after 2000, the pace of expansion of the oasis slowed down significantly. The expansion of grassland is the dominant process among the expansion of natural oasis. Grassland expansion mainly concentrated in the southern Yili, Urumqi and Changji, in addition to the expansion of woodland distributed in the northern district of Urumqi , Tacheng and Changji states. The expansion of cultivated farmland is the main expansion process to artificial oasis. The expansion of farmland mainly distributed in the Bozhou, Tacheng, and the center of Changji. The distribution of expanded urban construction land is same as the expansion of farmland, however, the retreat area of oasis presented a relatively scattered distribution in the study area. 3、In the process of the oasis’ expansion, all regions have different relative change rate compared with the whole region, in addition to, all regions also have different dynamic degree. The relative change rate of oasis in eastern Tianshan Mountains is higher than other regions before 1980, but the regions owning higher relative change rate of oasis transferred to the western region from the eastern regions after 1980. The expansion of natural oasis and artificial oasis have big difference with the whole oasis. The dynamic degrees of natural oasis in Wujiaqu, Changji, Karamay are higher than other regions before 2000, however, all regions’ dynamic degrees have almost no difference after 2000.The expansion of artificial oasis is more complicated than the expansion of natural oasis. All regions’ dynamic degrees present a fluctuating trend throughout the process of the oasis’ expansion. 4、0asis are affected by natural and human factors. The natural environment and climate background in arid area which represented by precipitation, air temperature , total amount of water resources and sunshine hours et al. are important factors of the oasis change driving force. At the same time, the continuous progress of human society and a variety of the accompanying and gradual strengthening human activities, which represented by the population growth, policy changes, economic development, the progress of agriculture science and technology and its inputs et al are the most essential factors of oasis change driving force. The dominant factors which affected oasis changes are distinct in different of periods and area, and they interact with each other between. Throughout the process of expansion, air temperature is more dominant than evaporation as the leading driving force among these natural factors, considering that evaporation is far larger than precipitation. Population and economic factors play the important role in the process of expansion among these human factors, such as population growth, GDP, the progress of agriculture science and technology and its inputs.
学科领域测绘工程
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.xjlas.org/handle/365004/14664
专题研究系统_荒漠环境研究室
作者单位中科院新疆生态与地理研究所
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
宋洋. 天山北坡绿洲化过程与时空变化特征[D]. 北京. 中国科学院大学,2015.
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