|摘要||为进一步探究干旱半干旱区水储量时空变化规律与其影响因素，本文采用美国德克萨斯大学空间研究中心发布的 UTCSR-RL05 L-2 从2003年1月至2014年5月的月数据，反演了新疆地区水储量时空变化。将GRACE反演的新疆地区水储量时空变化与GLDAS模型模拟结果进行对比，评价GRACE重力卫星在新疆地区的适用性。根据GRACE重力卫星反演的新疆地区水储量时空变化数据，分析新疆地区水储量时空变化特征，总结新疆地区水储量时空变化规律。根据区域水量平衡公式，结合GLDAS模型模拟数据及TRMM数据，分析降水、蒸发、降水蒸发差对水储量变化的影响；鉴于新疆地区在冷季降雪是降水的主要形式，本文增加了雪水当量变化对水储量变化影响的探究。为了进一步深入分析研究新疆地区水储量时空变化规律及影响因素，本文最后选择天山区中段南北坡作为典型区域，将南北坡水储量变化对比分析，进一步探究水储量时空变化特征。本文得出结论如下：
|其他摘要||In this paper, we applied the UTCSR-RL05 L-2 data measured by the GRACE from January 2003 to May 2014 to explore the temporal and spatial variations and its impact factors in arid and semi-arid regions. The results were verified with the simulated data from GLDAS model to evaluate the applicability of GRACE in exploring water storage change in Xinjiang. According to the water balance formula, the evapotranspiration, snow water equivalent and precipitation minus evapotranspiration data from the GLDAS model and the precipitation data from TRMM were used to assess their impact on the water storage change. Since snowfall is a main precipitation form in cold season in Xinjiang, the snow water equivalent change is also used to explore its impacts on water storage change. Lastly, the north and south slopes in the middle Tianshan Mountains is chosen as a typical area to further study about water storage temporal and spatial variation characteristics. The results are as follows:
(1) The GRACE data can be well used to model the water storage variations in Xinjiang.
(2) The change of water storage in Xinjiang ranged from -20mm to 20 mm. Water storage decreased from May to September and increased from November to next April. Water storage reached the extreme maximum during the period of April to May and decreased to the minimum during the period of August to September, but not on July when the evapotranspiration is strong. The trend of water storage in Xinjiang increased slowly, which is a reflection to the climate warming and wetting. Tarim Basin, with about two-thirds in terms of entire area, contributes only about one-third of water storage increase since 2003; With about a quarter of area, Junggar Basin contributes about half of water storage increase. The contributions of Irtysh River Basin and Ili River Basin to water storage change were higher than those of proportion in areas.
(3) The distribution of water storage increases in Xinjiang was most in northwest region in November to next April, where the precipitation is rich. However, the increase was less in southeast. The distribution of water storage decreases in Xinjiang was most in northwest from May to September, but the decrease was less in southeast. Water storage increased about from April to June in some parts of Tarim Basin and Junggar Basin due to the effects of mountainous runoff.
(4) Water storage change in Xinjiang is mainly influenced by precipitation in winter and early spring, while it was evapotranspiration in summer and autumn. In autumn, evapotranspiration and water storage change are almost equal. The influence of snow water equivalent change on water storage in winter and spring is greater than other seasons with a time delay. The influence of the increase in winter snow water equivalent on water storage is less than that of winter precipitation. Difference of rainfall and evapotranspiration in winter and spring seasons had a greater influence on the change of water storage than in summer and autumn.
(5) In defined four basins, temporal change in water storage and the effects of precipitation, evapotranspiration, rainfall, snow water equivalent change on water storage are almost similar to the pattern taking place in whole Xinjiang. To compare the four basins, temporal change in water storage and its influencing factors in these river basins have a little difference, which is consistent with the corresponding regional hydrological characteristics.
(6) Water storage temporal change and the effects of precipitation, evapotranspiration, rainfall, snow water equivalent change on water storage in the middle section of Tianshan Mountains has shown a similar pattern to that in whole Xinjiang. Temporal change and the influencing factors of water storage have some differences in south slopes and north slopes in the middle section of the mountains. The difference is consistent with hydrological characteristics in south slopes and north slopes.|
孙桂燕. 基于重力卫星的新疆水储量时空变化及其影响因素分析[D]. 北京. 中国科学院大学,2015.