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基于重力卫星的新疆水储量时空变化及其影响因素分析
孙桂燕
Subtype硕士
Thesis Advisor李兰海
2015
Degree Grantor中国科学院大学
Place of Conferral北京
Degree Discipline水文与水资源
Keyword新疆 重力卫星 水储量 时空变化 影响因素
Abstract为进一步探究干旱半干旱区水储量时空变化规律与其影响因素,本文采用美国德克萨斯大学空间研究中心发布的 UTCSR-RL05 L-2 从2003年1月至2014年5月的月数据,反演了新疆地区水储量时空变化。将GRACE反演的新疆地区水储量时空变化与GLDAS模型模拟结果进行对比,评价GRACE重力卫星在新疆地区的适用性。根据GRACE重力卫星反演的新疆地区水储量时空变化数据,分析新疆地区水储量时空变化特征,总结新疆地区水储量时空变化规律。根据区域水量平衡公式,结合GLDAS模型模拟数据及TRMM数据,分析降水、蒸发、降水蒸发差对水储量变化的影响;鉴于新疆地区在冷季降雪是降水的主要形式,本文增加了雪水当量变化对水储量变化影响的探究。为了进一步深入分析研究新疆地区水储量时空变化规律及影响因素,本文最后选择天山区中段南北坡作为典型区域,将南北坡水储量变化对比分析,进一步探究水储量时空变化特征。本文得出结论如下: (1)GRACE数据在新疆地区具有非常好的适用性。 (2)新疆地区水储量变化幅度为-20mm-+20mm。几乎在每年的5-9月份水储量为减少状态,每年的11月至次年4月份,水储量为增加状态。在每年的4-5月份整个新疆有个小减少高峰期,在8或者9月份减少的最多,而不是温度最高蒸发量最多的7月份。2003年以来新疆地区水储量呈现微弱的增加,这与当地的气候暖湿化变化特征相一致。塔里木盆地以约2/3的面积,对水储量增加的贡献率仅约为1/3,准噶尔盆地以约1/4的面积,对水储量变化的贡献率约为1/2,额尔齐斯河流域、伊犁河流域对水储量变化的贡献率均超过面积所占比重。 (3)新疆地区在水储量增加期11月至次年4月份在降水丰富的西北方向地区增加较多,东南方向增加较少。在水储量减少期5-9月份,西北方向减少较多,东南方向减少较少。由于受山区径流作用的影响,在4-6月份塔里木盆地与准噶尔盆地部分地区呈现增加状态。 (4)新疆地区水储量变化在冬季及早春主要受降水影响,在夏秋季节蒸发对水储量变化影响较大,尤其是秋季的季节蒸发量与水储量变化几乎是相等的。雪水当量变化在冬春季节对水储量变化影响较大,在春季雪水当量的减少对水储量变化的影响具有延迟性。冬季雪水当量的增加对水储量变化的影响小于冬季降水对水储量变化的影响。降水蒸发差在冬春季节对水储量变化影响较大,夏秋季节影响较小。 (5)四个流域水储量时间变化特征与全新疆相比十分相似,降水、蒸发、雪水当量变化、降水蒸发差这些因素对水储量变化的影响与新疆地区也几乎是完全一致的。四个流域之间相对比,不同流域水储量时间变化与影响因素影响程度具有一定的差异,其差异与相应区域水文特性相一致。 (6)典型区域天山区中段南北坡水储量时空变化特征及影响因素与整个新疆地区相一致。南北坡相比较具有差异性,其差异性与南北坡水文特性相对应。
Other AbstractIn this paper, we applied the UTCSR-RL05 L-2 data measured by the GRACE from January 2003 to May 2014 to explore the temporal and spatial variations and its impact factors in arid and semi-arid regions. The results were verified with the simulated data from GLDAS model to evaluate the applicability of GRACE in exploring water storage change in Xinjiang. According to the water balance formula, the evapotranspiration, snow water equivalent and precipitation minus evapotranspiration data from the GLDAS model and the precipitation data from TRMM were used to assess their impact on the water storage change. Since snowfall is a main precipitation form in cold season in Xinjiang, the snow water equivalent change is also used to explore its impacts on water storage change. Lastly, the north and south slopes in the middle Tianshan Mountains is chosen as a typical area to further study about water storage temporal and spatial variation characteristics. The results are as follows: (1) The GRACE data can be well used to model the water storage variations in Xinjiang. (2) The change of water storage in Xinjiang ranged from -20mm to 20 mm. Water storage decreased from May to September and increased from November to next April. Water storage reached the extreme maximum during the period of April to May and decreased to the minimum during the period of August to September, but not on July when the evapotranspiration is strong. The trend of water storage in Xinjiang increased slowly, which is a reflection to the climate warming and wetting. Tarim Basin, with about two-thirds in terms of entire area, contributes only about one-third of water storage increase since 2003; With about a quarter of area, Junggar Basin contributes about half of water storage increase. The contributions of Irtysh River Basin and Ili River Basin to water storage change were higher than those of proportion in areas. (3) The distribution of water storage increases in Xinjiang was most in northwest region in November to next April, where the precipitation is rich. However, the increase was less in southeast. The distribution of water storage decreases in Xinjiang was most in northwest from May to September, but the decrease was less in southeast. Water storage increased about from April to June in some parts of Tarim Basin and Junggar Basin due to the effects of mountainous runoff. (4) Water storage change in Xinjiang is mainly influenced by precipitation in winter and early spring, while it was evapotranspiration in summer and autumn. In autumn, evapotranspiration and water storage change are almost equal. The influence of snow water equivalent change on water storage in winter and spring is greater than other seasons with a time delay. The influence of the increase in winter snow water equivalent on water storage is less than that of winter precipitation. Difference of rainfall and evapotranspiration in winter and spring seasons had a greater influence on the change of water storage than in summer and autumn. (5) In defined four basins, temporal change in water storage and the effects of precipitation, evapotranspiration, rainfall, snow water equivalent change on water storage are almost similar to the pattern taking place in whole Xinjiang. To compare the four basins, temporal change in water storage and its influencing factors in these river basins have a little difference, which is consistent with the corresponding regional hydrological characteristics. (6) Water storage temporal change and the effects of precipitation, evapotranspiration, rainfall, snow water equivalent change on water storage in the middle section of Tianshan Mountains has shown a similar pattern to that in whole Xinjiang. Temporal change and the influencing factors of water storage have some differences in south slopes and north slopes in the middle section of the mountains. The difference is consistent with hydrological characteristics in south slopes and north slopes.
Subject Area水文与水资源
Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.xjlas.org/handle/365004/14665
Collection研究系统_荒漠环境研究室
Affiliation中科院新疆生态与地理研究所
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
孙桂燕. 基于重力卫星的新疆水储量时空变化及其影响因素分析[D]. 北京. 中国科学院大学,2015.
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