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植被修复措施对克拉玛依砾漠区梭梭群落特征的影响
杨更强
学位类型硕士
导师严成
2015
学位授予单位中国科学院大学
学位授予地点北京
学位专业环境工程
关键词微地形 植被修复 砾漠 梭梭群落特征
摘要本文以恢复生态学理论为指导,以克拉玛依盐渍化砾漠梭梭群落为研究对象,通过对不同微地形及灌溉量条件下的梭梭群落进行调查和分析,探讨了微地形及灌溉量对梭梭群落特征的影响,为砾漠荒漠植被修复提供科学依据和技术支撑。初步研究结果如下: 1、对平坦冲积扇干旱砾漠区进行土垄和深沟地形改造均能显著增加盐化砾漠区梭梭群落物种种类数、群落多样性和丰富度,降低梭梭群落植物均匀性和优势度;微地形变化对土壤pH影响不显著,能够降低土壤表层盐分含量、全盐含量、Na+、Cl-、SO42-含量;盐化砾漠区梭梭群落Shannon-Wiener多样性指数、Patrick丰富度指数、McIntosh均匀度指数与总盐、Cl-达到显著的相关水平,Patrick丰富度指数与SO42-达到显著的相关水平。土垄和深沟2种形态地形的改造均对盐化砾漠区梭梭群落植被生态恢复具有促进作用,但从物种种类数、群落多样性、土壤盐分含量、土壤盐分离子含量综合分析,在盐渍化砾漠区开沟是植被重建与恢复效果最好的工程措施。 2、灌溉量的增多可以改变梭梭群落物种组成,增加草本密度和盖度及灌木盖度,但对灌木密度影响不显著;灌溉量对梭梭群落物种多样性影响显著,随着水量的增加物种多样性指数、物种丰富度指数呈现逐渐增加趋势;由梭梭群落特征指标值可知,当年生长季节增补降水量75mm恢复效果较好。
其他摘要Based on the restoration ecology theory, the community characteristics of Haloxylon ammodendron community in the salinization gravel desert of Karamay under different irrigation level was studied. This paper analysed the effect of different micro-topography and the irrigation water volume on the community characteristics of Haloxylon ammodendron were studied. The study results provided scientific evidences and technical supports for the vegetation restoration in gravel desert. The results were as follows: 1、Different forms of terrain could increase the species number, community diversity and richness, while reduced the uniformity and the dominance of H. ammodendron communities. There was no significant difference in pH among different terrains, but some differences in soil salt content, surface salt levels and Cl-, Na+, SO42--ion content. The increase biomass of dominant species in H. ammodendron community was the main factor for reducing the total salt content,salt content in surface soil,and Cl-, Na+, SO42- of salinization gravel desert. Furthermore, the Shannon-Wiener index, Patrick richness index, McIntosh evenness index had strongly positive correlation with the content of total salt and Cl- ion in soil. The Patrick richness index and SO42- was significantly positive correlation. Soil ridge and deep groove had promoting effects on vegetation ecological restoration of the H. ammodendron community in the salinization gravel desert. But, the results of species number, community diversity, soil salt content and saline ions content showed that deep groove was a most effective restoration measure in gravel desert area. 2、Increasing of irrigation water could change the species composition of H. ammodendron community, i.e., increase the density and coverage of herbaceous and shrub, while no significant effect on the shrub density; Effect of irrigation level on species diversity of H. ammodendron community was significant. With irrigation volume increasing, the species diversity index and richness index increased gradually. The characteristic index values of H. ammodendron community showed that the recovery was optimal when the supplement precipitation was 75mm in growing season.
学科领域环境工程
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.xjlas.org/handle/365004/14677
专题研究系统_荒漠环境研究室
作者单位中科院新疆生态与地理研究所
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
杨更强. 植被修复措施对克拉玛依砾漠区梭梭群落特征的影响[D]. 北京. 中国科学院大学,2015.
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