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乌鲁木齐地区不同灌木群落类型与土壤环境因子的关系
叶琴
学位类型硕士
导师周华荣
2015
学位授予单位中国科学院大学
学位授予地点北京
学位专业环境科学
关键词灌木群落 群落分布 土壤环境因子 乌鲁木齐
摘要乌鲁木齐属于中亚温带荒漠区,温带荒漠,旱生、盐生和沙生荒漠植物等自然植被种类较多。本文以乌鲁木齐地区典型的灌木植被为研究对象进行样地调查,在灌木群落分类的基础上,结合土壤空间变异理论与数量排序的方法对影响灌木群落多样性及其分布格局的主要土壤环境因子进行分析,研究成果对阐明灌木植被群落现代空间分布格局及其趋动因子提供科学依据,对干旱区灌木植被的多样性保护及生态恢复具有重大意义。主要研究结论如下: (1) 研究区灌木地景观区域中土壤参数的空间变异特征表明:不同土层处土壤含水量、有机质、全氮、有效磷含量都具有强烈的空间自相关性,而且空间变异更多的是由结构性差异引起的,而不是随机因素。研究区土壤均为碱性土,基本处于轻度盐化的状态。 (2) 研究区各群落内出现的主要灌木物种共计11科、24属、32种,其中:灌木物种最多的为藜科,其次为蔷薇科、豆科、忍冬科;出现最多的属为蔷薇属、其次为忍冬属。 (3) 灌木群落的Simpson多样性指数与海拔、粒度平均值、元素Bi和粒度分选系数呈显著相关关系;Pielou均匀度指数与海拔、粒度平均值、分选系数、元素Mn显著正相关;Marglef丰富度指数只与Bi显著相关。 (4) 土壤环境因子中,全盐含量、pH、有机质、全氮和全钾含量对灌木群落的分布有重要的作用,且盐碱度特征值最大,全磷含量的贡献值最小。 (5) 表层土壤决定了山地灌丛及灌木荒漠的分布格局,中—浅层和较深层土壤的影响较小且基本相同。
其他摘要Urumqi, situated in the temperate desert region of Central Asia, is characterized by typical natural vegetation, among which are developed well with xerophytes, halophytes and psammophytes. In this study, typical shrub vegetation in Urumqi area was investigated. Based on the classification of shrub communities, combined with the quantity sorting theory and spatial variability of soil, the major environmental factors which affect shrub community diversity and distribution patterns were analyzed. The results will provide a scientific basis. The spatial distribution pattern and their driving factors, this is also of great significance in biodiversity conservation. And ecological restoration of shrub communities in arid areas. The main conclusions are as follows: (1) The soil moisture content, the organic matter, the total nitrigen and avaliable phosphate of this area had a strong spatial autocorrelation and the spatial variability was caused by structural differences other than random factors. The soils in the study area are alkaline soil, and were basically in a state of mild salinization. (2) The major shrub species occurred in the study area were totaling 11 families, 24 genera and 32 species, the most family of shrub was Chenopodiaceae, followed by Rosaceae, Legumes and Caprifoliaceae; the most genera was Rosa, followed by Lonicera. (3) Simpson index of shrub communities was significant correlated with altitude, the altitude, mean particle size, heavy metals Bi, and particle sorting coefficient; Pielou index was significant positive correlated with the altitude, mean grain size, sorting coefficient and element Mn; Marglef index was only significantly associated with Bi. (4) The sorted results showed that soil salinity, pH, organic matter, total nitrogen and total potassium content in soil environmental factors had an important role in the distribution of shrub communities. However salinity had the largest eigenvalues, and total phosphorus content had the lowest contribution value. (5) The surface soil determined the distribution pattern of mountain shrub and desert shrubs, while, medium-shallow and deep soil layer had little and similar effect on it.
学科领域环境科学
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.xjlas.org/handle/365004/14679
专题研究系统_荒漠环境研究室
作者单位中科院新疆生态与地理研究所
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
叶琴. 乌鲁木齐地区不同灌木群落类型与土壤环境因子的关系[D]. 北京. 中国科学院大学,2015.
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