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重大工程对极旱荒漠植被主要生态服务功能的影响
陈军纪
学位类型硕士
导师尹林克
2015
学位授予单位中国科学院大学
学位授予地点北京
学位专业植物学
关键词重大工程 极旱荒漠植被 生态服务功能
摘要本文以穿越安西自然保护区的瓜星高速公路工程、西气东输工程和兰新高铁工程等重大工程为研究对象,通过专家咨询法建立了极旱荒漠植被生态服务功能指标体系和评估模型,并结合植被调查,分别定量评估了不同类型重大工程在建设期与运营期对工程干扰区内的极旱荒漠植被生态服务功能的影响,旨在为国家生态补偿政策和生态补偿标准的建立提供理论支撑。研究结果如下所示: 工程沿线极旱荒漠植被的生态服务功能指标体系由固碳释氧功能、土壤保育功能、保护生物多样性功能组成,评价模型为△Y~∑αiβi(Yf-Yz)ij;工程建设与运营过程中的土壤深翻碾压和废水废物的排放,对工程沿线施工作业区内的极旱荒漠植被的生物量和香农-威纳指数(Shannon-wiener index)造成较大影响,其中梭梭(Haloxylon ammodendron (C. A. Mey.) Bunge)群系生物量的最大降损量达74%,梭梭、白皮锦鸡儿(Caragana leucophloea Pojark.)、荒漠锦鸡儿(Caragana roborovskyi Kom.)和西藏锦鸡儿(Caragana spinifera Kom.)等荒漠香农-威纳指数的最大降损量达70%左右。 工程建设期,瓜星高速公路工程、兰新高铁工程和西气东输工程对其沿线极旱荒漠植被主要生态功能降损影响分别表现为功能改变和功能损坏,而工程运营期,这三类工程对沿线极旱荒漠植被的主要生态服务功能降损影响显现为功能损坏和功能降损。其中梭梭、白皮锦鸡儿和荒漠锦鸡儿等荒漠以及禾草盐生草甸(赖草(Leymus secalinus (Georgi) Tzvel.))受到的降损程度最大,造成短期无法恢复的影响。
其他摘要The major projects of the Guaxing highway, the high-speed rail of Lanxin and the West East Gas Pipeline Project for the natural reserve of Anxi were chosen as research objects in this research. It established a index system and evaluation model of the ecological service function for the hyper-arid desert vegetation through expert consultation. It evaluated the quantitatively ecological service function for the hyper-arid desert vegetation in the construction and operation phase of the major projects by vegetation survey. It can provide theoretics support for national ecological compensation policies and standards. The results were as follows: The index system of the ecological service function for the hyper-arid desert vegetation is composed of soil conservation, biodiversity protection, fixing carbon and releasing oxygen, the evaluation mode is△Y~∑αiβi(Yf-Yz)ij. The biomass, Shannon-wiener index and biological processes were impacted and damaged seriously after plowed deeply soil and discharged water wastes during construction and operation. The maximum biomass loss of Haloxylon ammodendron (C. A. Mey.) Bunge was 74%, and the maximum biomass loss of Shannon-wiener index of Caragana leucophloea Pojark., Caragana roborovskyi Kom., Caragana spinifera Kom were 70%. During the project construction period, the ecological service function of the hyper-arid desert vegetation was damaged and changed by the Guaxing highway, the high-speed rail of Lanxin and the West East Gas Pipeline Project.During the project operation period, the ecological service function of the hyper-arid desert vegetation was changed and decreased. Caragana leucophloea, Caragana roborovskyi, Haloxylon ammodendron and Leymus secalinus were lossed mostly, and they could not be restored in shortly period.
学科领域植物学
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.xjlas.org/handle/365004/14685
专题研究系统_荒漠环境研究室
作者单位中科院新疆生态与地理研究所
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
陈军纪. 重大工程对极旱荒漠植被主要生态服务功能的影响[D]. 北京. 中国科学院大学,2015.
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