|其他摘要||The Asiatic ibex (Capra sibirica) also named Siberian ibex, belong to the Capra genus of the Caprinae subfamily of the Bovidae family, is distributed in China, Afghanistan, Kashmir to Mongolia and Pakistan. We used mircohistological analysis of fecal to study the diet composition, and used the san sampling method to observe main cluster behavior of Asiatic ibex in Urumqi River source regions of Central Tianshan Mountains, Xinjiang, also. In research region, not only the feeding habits, feeding strategy, feeding related factors, but also the type of group, sexually segregation of Asiatic ibex was studied. Based on these, the study was to determine the relationship between feeding strategies and sexually segregation between male and female. The main results are as follows:
1) The feeding habits and dietary overlap of Asiatic ibex and livestock.
Asiatic ibex was a generalist feeder with heterogeneous diets, with selectivity of its food to a certain extent. 26 plant species from 12 families were the main food of Asiatic ibex, including 25 plant species in warm season and 16 plant species in cold season. Cyperaceae is the major family of Asiatic ibex diet, account for 38.81% of food composition, follow by Gramineae (27.55%), Compositae (9.46%), and Rosaceae (8.94%). The proportion of shrubs is rarely (2.19%). On the species level, the proportion of Kobresia in food spectrum is 23.10%, much higher than other species. Compared to the warm season, the proportion of Rosaceae (8.23%), Compositae (4.96%) and Gentianaceae (1.29%) in food spectrum declined vary in species. There are differences in food composition between genders, the diet overlap between male and female was 62.76% in warm season, and the index up to 77.56% in cold season. The diet composition of female concentrated in some plants of high nutrition, and male will not deliberately to find high quality food. In two seasons, the dissimilar food selection strategy was the main reason caused sexual diet differently. The livestock main ingested 28 plant species from 15 families in warm season, focusing on plants from Cyperaceae (41.21%) and Gramineae (23.63%). The diet overlap between Asiatic ibex and livestock was 76.07%, showed a competition in food resource utilization.
2) The analysis of food nutritional component and feeding strategy of Asiatic ibex.
Female ate high quality food which have more richly content of crude protein and water. The food availability and plants nutrition composition were the main factors influenced on food selection of Asiatic ibex, the food selection have a positive correlation with the biomass and content of crude protein of plants, and a negative correlation with the content of crude fiber. Asiatic ibex taken different food selection strategies between male and female, male will use lower quality but higher biomass habitat, and female treat food quality more seriously and will select high quality food even more. What’s more, Female of Asiatic ibex were greatly influenced by plants nutritional between warm and cold season, by contrast, male show less sensitive to plant nutrition change.
3) The relationship between feeding strategy and sexually segregation of Asiatic ibex.
A total of 21095 individuals belonging to 1682 groups were observed, with a mean group size of 12.54. Ewe-lamb groups were the most frequently encountered，followed by mixed groups, male groups and solitary sheep. Chi-square test results showed the frequency with which we observed social groups and number of individuals within group varied by month (χ2=372.9, df=33, P<0.01；χ2=484.4, df=33, P<0.01). Asiatic ibex were highly gregarious, except for the breeding period, both male and female live in separate group. The sexually segregation of Asiatic ibex was influenced by external environment and physiological cycles. We guessed different feeding strategies seem to the direct factor that impacted on sexual segregation of Asiatic ibex.|