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北山羊(Capra sibirica)食性与同性集群研究
朱新胜著
学位类型硕士
导师杨维康
2016
学位授予单位中国科学院大学
学位授予地点北京
学位专业生态学
关键词北山羊 食性 食物营养分析 同性集群
摘要北山羊(Capra sibirica)隶属牛科(Bovidae)山羊属(Capra),是一种分布于中亚及我国新疆等高山地区的濒危野生动物。2013年10月至2015年09月,作者在新疆天格尔峰山脉乌鲁木齐河源区采用粪便显微分析法和扫描取样法研究了北山羊食性与集群行为。食性研究包括北山羊采食特征与取食相关因子分析,以及暖季与家畜的食物竞争。集群行为研究包括北山羊同性集群以及社群结构变化。在此基础之上,作者分析了北山羊食性与同性集群之间的关系,以期为北山羊的保护管理工作以及相关研究提供参考。结果如下: 1)北山羊食性及其与家畜食物竞争 研究结果表明北山羊属广食性物种,全年主要采食12科26种植物,其中暖季12科25种,冷季6科16种。北山羊主要采食莎草科(Cyperaceae)植物(38.81%),其次是禾本科(Gramineae)(27.55%)、菊科(Compositae)(9.46%)和蔷薇科(Rosaceae)(8.94%)植物,灌木在北山羊食物中比例很少(2.27%)。在物种水平上,北山羊采食最多植物为嵩草(Kobresia sp)(29.55%)。北山羊冷暖季食物组成差异不显著(Z=-0.31, P=0.76),冷季(4月-10月)食物组成中菊科、龙胆科(Gentianaceae)、豆科(Leguminosae)采食比例较暖季(11月-次年3月)下降,莎草科采食比例上升。雌雄食物中各植物所占百分比不同,且雄羊采食植物种类高于雌羊。暖季雌雄食性差异较大,食物重叠度仅为62.76%,冷季采食食物趋于相似,食物重叠度上升为77.56%。雌雄北山羊对各种植物的喜好程度亦不相同,雄羊采食植物种类符合当地植物资源分布特征,对食物选择性较低,而雌羊则偏好采食蔷薇科、豆科等营养质量高的食物。雌雄北山羊不同采食对策是造成两性食性差异的主要原因。暖季家羊主要采食15科28种植物,主要集中于莎草科(41.21%)和禾本科(23.63%),与北山羊的食物重叠度高达76.07%,二者食物竞争明显。 2)北山羊食物选择 不同季节雌雄北山羊食物选择差异明显,食物营养质量和资源丰富度是造成差异的主要原因。雌性北山羊对食物的选择性较高,主要采食营养质量较高植物。其对食物的选择性与植物含水量和粗蛋白含量呈现正相关关系,与粗纤维含量、总可溶性糖含量呈负相关。雄性北山羊则大量采食生境中资源量大但粗纤维含量高的植物种类,对食物质量的选择性相对较低,对食物资源量的要求相对较高。 3)北山羊食性与同性集群关系 北山羊集群类型以雌幼群比率最高,其次为混合群、雄性群和独羊,卡方检验表明月间四种社群类型的出现频次及群内个体数量差异均显著(χ2 = 372.9, P < 0.01;χ2 = 484.4, P < 0.01)。北山羊同性集群现象明显,暖季各月北山羊成年雌雄个体分别组群,以单性群为主,同性集群程度较高;冷季是发情交配期,受自身生理周期及外界环境影响,为完成繁殖交配,成年北山羊雌雄个体混群,同性集群程度较低。雌雄之间不同采食对策可能是造成其性别分离的主要原因之一。
其他摘要The Asiatic ibex (Capra sibirica) also named Siberian ibex, belong to the Capra genus of the Caprinae subfamily of the Bovidae family, is distributed in China, Afghanistan, Kashmir to Mongolia and Pakistan. We used mircohistological analysis of fecal to study the diet composition, and used the san sampling method to observe main cluster behavior of Asiatic ibex in Urumqi River source regions of Central Tianshan Mountains, Xinjiang, also. In research region, not only the feeding habits, feeding strategy, feeding related factors, but also the type of group, sexually segregation of Asiatic ibex was studied. Based on these, the study was to determine the relationship between feeding strategies and sexually segregation between male and female. The main results are as follows: 1) The feeding habits and dietary overlap of Asiatic ibex and livestock. Asiatic ibex was a generalist feeder with heterogeneous diets, with selectivity of its food to a certain extent. 26 plant species from 12 families were the main food of Asiatic ibex, including 25 plant species in warm season and 16 plant species in cold season. Cyperaceae is the major family of Asiatic ibex diet, account for 38.81% of food composition, follow by Gramineae (27.55%), Compositae (9.46%), and Rosaceae (8.94%). The proportion of shrubs is rarely (2.19%). On the species level, the proportion of Kobresia in food spectrum is 23.10%, much higher than other species. Compared to the warm season, the proportion of Rosaceae (8.23%), Compositae (4.96%) and Gentianaceae (1.29%) in food spectrum declined vary in species. There are differences in food composition between genders, the diet overlap between male and female was 62.76% in warm season, and the index up to 77.56% in cold season. The diet composition of female concentrated in some plants of high nutrition, and male will not deliberately to find high quality food. In two seasons, the dissimilar food selection strategy was the main reason caused sexual diet differently. The livestock main ingested 28 plant species from 15 families in warm season, focusing on plants from Cyperaceae (41.21%) and Gramineae (23.63%). The diet overlap between Asiatic ibex and livestock was 76.07%, showed a competition in food resource utilization. 2) The analysis of food nutritional component and feeding strategy of Asiatic ibex. Female ate high quality food which have more richly content of crude protein and water. The food availability and plants nutrition composition were the main factors influenced on food selection of Asiatic ibex, the food selection have a positive correlation with the biomass and content of crude protein of plants, and a negative correlation with the content of crude fiber. Asiatic ibex taken different food selection strategies between male and female, male will use lower quality but higher biomass habitat, and female treat food quality more seriously and will select high quality food even more. What’s more, Female of Asiatic ibex were greatly influenced by plants nutritional between warm and cold season, by contrast, male show less sensitive to plant nutrition change. 3) The relationship between feeding strategy and sexually segregation of Asiatic ibex. A total of 21095 individuals belonging to 1682 groups were observed, with a mean group size of 12.54. Ewe-lamb groups were the most frequently encountered,followed by mixed groups, male groups and solitary sheep. Chi-square test results showed the frequency with which we observed social groups and number of individuals within group varied by month (χ2=372.9, df=33, P<0.01;χ2=484.4, df=33, P<0.01). Asiatic ibex were highly gregarious, except for the breeding period, both male and female live in separate group. The sexually segregation of Asiatic ibex was influenced by external environment and physiological cycles. We guessed different feeding strategies seem to the direct factor that impacted on sexual segregation of Asiatic ibex.
学科领域生态学
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.xjlas.org/handle/365004/14690
专题研究系统_荒漠环境研究室
作者单位中科院新疆生态与地理研究所
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
朱新胜著. 北山羊(Capra sibirica)食性与同性集群研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院大学,2016.
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