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高矿化度水滴灌下沙漠人工林土壤质量特征及定量评价
黄媛
学位类型博士
导师徐新文
2016
学位授予单位中国科学院大学
学位授予地点北京
学位专业生态学
关键词沙漠 高矿化度水 滴灌 人工林 土壤质量
摘要对高矿化度水滴灌下沙漠人工林土壤质量特征及评价的研究,不但对了解高矿化度水滴灌下人工林土壤物理、化学、生物学等关联过程有重要理论意义,而且对高矿化度水滴灌下人工林对风沙土土壤质量改良,以及极端干旱区人工林可持续发展,极端干旱风沙地区人地关系等研究都具有十分重要的参考价值。本文以塔里木沙漠长期高矿化度水滴灌下的人工林土壤为研究对象,通过野外调查采样,室内土壤分析,并结合数理统计方法,研究了塔里木沙漠长期高矿化度水滴灌下不同树种人工林土壤质量随林龄和灌溉水矿化度变化的基本特征,构建了人工林土壤质量评价指标体系,建立了土壤质量综合评价模型,并对塔里木沙漠长期高矿化度水滴灌下的人工林土壤质量进行了综合评价。主要结论如下: ⑴ 人工林建成后,土壤机械组成首先在表层发生改变,表现为细砂粒含量减少,极细砂粒、粗粉粒和细粉粒含量增加。人工林土壤除全钾外,pH、电导率、养分及酶活性都具有强烈的“表聚性”。人工林地土壤性质在表层变异性最强,最能代表流动风沙土向半固定和固定风沙土演变过程中土壤性质的变化。 ⑵ 林龄对不同树种人工林表层土壤质量指标的影响规律相同。随林龄增大,土壤出现明显的细化,细砂粒含量减少,极细砂粒、粗粉粒含量增多,pH增大,电导率增大,除全钾外,其他养分含量增加,土壤脲酶和过氧化氢酶活性增强,微生物量碳和氮的含量显著性增大。 ⑶ 灌溉水矿化度对人工林土壤质量指标影响规律不同。随灌溉水矿化度的增加,柽柳人工林土壤粗化,梭梭和沙拐枣人工林土壤机械组成变化不显著;pH变化不显著;电导率增大;柽柳和沙拐枣林土壤养分含量均增加,梭梭林土壤速效钾和阳离子交换量增加,其余养分指标先增加后减少;微生物量碳和氮的含量显著性减小。当滴灌水矿化度为2.88~12.07g/L时,脲酶和过氧化氢酶活性均随灌溉水矿化度的增加而增强,当滴灌水矿化度为12.07~29.70g/L时,梭梭人工林土壤脲酶和过氧化氢酶活性随滴灌水矿化度的增大而减弱。 ⑷ 对19项土壤质量指标进行分析,筛选出了8项土壤质量评价指标:团聚体总量、水稳性团聚体总量、速效氮、脲酶、微生物量氮、全磷、速效磷和全钾,构建了高矿化度水滴灌下人工林土壤质量综合评价指标体系和评价模型。 ⑸ 依据土壤质量分级标准,三种树种人工林土壤等级随林龄的增大而增加,且梭梭和沙拐枣较柽柳更有利于风沙土土壤质量的改良。不同矿化度水灌溉对人工林土壤质量指数的影响表现为:当灌溉水矿化度≤23.80g/L时,人工林土壤质量指数受其影响不显著,当灌溉水矿化度>23.80g/L时,梭梭人工林土壤质量指数显著下降。
其他摘要A study on soil quality under artificial shelterbelt irrigated highly minealized water in Desert was carried out in an effort to understand the characteristics and assessment. It indicated the soil physics, chemistry, biology and other associated process. Special attention was on the improvemnt of atifical shelterbelt to Aeolian sandy soil, the sustainable development of artificial shelterbelt in arid areas and the relationship between sandy soil and people. In this research, the atifical shelterbelt in Taklimakan Desert had long-term highly mineralized water with drip irrigation. Through field investigation sampling, indoor soil analysis, combined with mathematical statistics, basic characteristics of the soil quality with different plantation ages, different mineralized of irrigation water and different plant species were studied. Soil quality assessment indicators were screened and soil quality comprehensive assessment model was established. Soil quality in Taklimakan Desert with long-term highly mineralized water drip irrigation was assessed. Main results for this study are as follows: ⑴ After planting artificial shelterbelt, the change of soil mechanical composition first occurs on the surface, fine sand content reduced, fine sand, coarse silt and fine silt increased. Except total potassium, pH, electric conductivity, nutrients and enzymatic activities had a strong “suface gathering”. Soil properties in the surface layer had the strongest variabilities. It was the representative of the change of shifting sand soil to the semi-fixed and fixed sand soil. ⑵ Age of the forest had same influence on surface soil quality indicators of different species. With forest age increasing, fine sand content reduced, fine sand, coarse silt content, pH and electric conductivity increased. In addition to total potassium, the other soil nutrient content increased, and the activities of urease and catalase, the content of microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen all significantly increased. ⑶ Highly mineralized water had different influence on soil quality indicators. As the salinity of the irrigation water increasing, soil texture of Tamarisk L. coarsed, while soil mechanical composition in Calligonum L. and Haloxylon L. plantation had no significant change, no significant changes in pH, but electric conductivity increased, tamarisk and Calligonum soil nutrients increased, increasing soil available K and cation exchange capacity Haloxylon forest, and the rest after the first increase to reduce nutrient indicators, microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen content of significantly reduced. When the drop irrigation salinity is 2.88 ~ 12.07 g L-1, the plantation urease and catalase activity increased with the increase of salinity drip irrigation is enhanced when the drip irrigation salinity 12.07 ~ 29.70 g L-1, when Haloxylon plantation enzyme urease and catalase activity with drip irrigation increased salinity weakened. ⑷ Nineteen soil quality indicators were analyzed, we screened out eight soil quality indicators:the total amount of aggregate, the total amount of water stable aggregates, available nitrogen, urease, microbial biomass nitrogen, total phosphorus, available phosphorus and potassium, quality comprehensive assessment index system with highly mineralized water irrigation in forest soil was established. ⑸ Following soil quality classification standard, with forest age increased, soil quality grade of three plant species increased, Haloxylon and Tamarix Calligonum relatively more beneficial to Aeolian sandy soil quality improvement. Different salinity water irrigation on the performance of soil quality index is: When irrigation water salinity ≤23.08g L-1, the soil quality index is not significantly affected, when the irrigation water salinity>23.80g L-1, Haloxylon plantation soil quality index significantly decreased.
学科领域生态学
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.xjlas.org/handle/365004/14701
专题研究系统_荒漠环境研究室
作者单位中科院新疆生态与地理研究所
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
黄媛. 高矿化度水滴灌下沙漠人工林土壤质量特征及定量评价[D]. 北京. 中国科学院大学,2016.
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