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荒漠--绿洲过渡带生态恢复效益评价
王日照
学位类型硕士
导师陈亚鹏
2016
学位授予单位中国科学院大学
学位授予地点北京
学位专业自然地理学
关键词荒漠-绿洲过渡带 生态恢复 生态效益 经济效益 塔里木河下游
摘要荒漠-绿洲过渡带是绿洲生态系统与荒漠生态系统的交错地带,在干旱区处于重要地位,且维系着绿洲农业的持续发展和内部稳定,是绿洲农业稳定发展的天然屏障,同时也是具有敏感退化趋势的生态脆弱带。20世纪以来,荒漠-绿洲过渡带以天然植被为主体的生态系统和生态过程受到严重影响,“绿色走廊”岌岌可危。因此,在该区建立生态恢复示范地,对不同植被恢复模式的综合效益进行评价,为建立经济高效的荒漠-绿洲过渡带生态防护区域,实现过渡带生态保护与高效经济共赢提供理论指导。 本研究以塔里木河下游荒漠-绿洲过渡带的生态恢复示范地为研究对象,利用“空间代替时间”和定位实验研究相结合的方法,通过对不同植被恢复模式和不同恢复年限下群落结构和稳定性、生态过程(土壤肥力、土壤环境)以及产生的经济效益等指标进行对比分析,从而对不同植被恢复模式的综合效益进行评价,主要结论如下: 1. 在进行人工补水干预生态恢复半年后,植被盖度大幅增加,群落物种由7种增加到11种,人工干预补水激活土壤种子库导致一年生草本植物猪毛菜大量繁殖,群落结构得到优化。生物多样性指数显示,群落稳定性有所提高,群落正向演替趋势明显,但是受极端干旱环境影响,退化生态系统仍需人工干预和需较长时间才能达到稳定状态。 2. 生态恢复显著改善了土壤环境状况。植被恢复有效的改善了土壤水分条件,不同植被恢复模式下除表层(0-5cm)土壤外其余各层土壤含水量显著高于生态恢复前,并且土壤的保水性能从15cm土层开始凸显,其中3年大枣恢复模式土壤水分状况最好。土壤的pH值在7.91~8.72之间,表现为碱土性质,恢复区内的猪毛菜、黑果枸杞、大枣为耐盐碱或泌盐植物,对盐碱地具有明显的脱盐作用,生态恢复使上层(0-30cm)土壤全盐含量显著降低,50cm土层以下变化不显著,生态恢复的盐分改良效果突出。 3. 生态恢复显著改善了土壤的肥力状况。除全钾外其他营养指标表现出明显表聚现象,50cm是变异分化层。不同植被恢复模式土壤养分指数(SNI)显示,3年大枣(0.84)>2年大枣(0.73)>半年沙枣(0.72)>1年黑果枸杞(0.69)>4年大枣(0.61)>恢复前(0.01),植被恢复对土壤养分的改良效果显著。其中3年大枣模式较其他恢复模式对土壤养分改良效果最为明显,而4年大枣模式土壤养分状况相对较差,这可能与植物的生物量有关。 4. 通过计算不同植被恢复模式的直接经济效益(经济产投比、劳动生产率和土地利用率)和间接经济效益(土壤肥力保持价值),结果显示:4年大枣模式的经济产投比最高,经济产投比随恢复年限增加呈递增趋势,说明随恢复年限的增加,不同植被恢复模式的资金利用效率和经济效率是不断提高的。受黑果枸杞市场价格持续高涨的影响,劳动生产率和土地生产率都是1年黑果枸杞模式最高。除半年沙枣模式外,其他植被恢复模式都很好的集约高效地利用了当地光、热、水等自然资源。不同植被恢复模式的土壤肥力保持价值:2年大枣>半年沙枣>3年大枣>1年黑果枸杞>4年大枣,2年大枣模式土壤肥力保持价值最大,高达64957元/ hm2。以植被恢复为主的生态修复,有效的改善了土壤肥力状况,节约了对土地的肥料投入。
其他摘要Desert-oasis ecotone is import and sensitive fragile in arid region. The ecotone between the oasis and desert is not only the protective barriers of oases, but also maintain the sustainable development and the internal stability of oasis. Since 21th century, Desert-oasis ecotone in natural vegetation as the main ecosystems and ecological processes have been serious damaged, and “green corridor” is in dangerous. So estabilish the ecological restration demonstration and evaluate the comprehensive benefit of different vegetation restration patterns, which is in order to provide theoretical guidance for the establishment of ecotone ecological protection area and efficient economy. The study which is based on the desert-oasis ecotone ecological resroration demonstration used the methods of “space instead of time” and experimental studies. The structure, stability of community, ecological processes (soil fertility, soil environment) as well as other economic indicators were measured and compared to evaluate the overall efficiency under different vegetation restoration patterns and different restoration years. The main conclusion are as follows: 1. After half of the year artificial water intervention ecological recovery, the vegetation cover increased and the species increased from 7 to 11. Because of replenishment, the soil seed bank was activated, Salsola year herd bloomed. Community has been optimized. Biodiversity index showed community stability increased and community succession trend is positive. However, because of the extrement arid environment, ecosystems still need human intervention and take long time to reach steady state. 2. Ecological restoration improved the soil environment significantly. Vegetation restoration improved soil moisture conditions effectively, soil water content of different vegetation restoration patterns in addition to the outer surface soil (0-5cm) was significantly higher than the previous ecological restoration. Soil water retention began to show from the layer of 15cm, in which 3 years Jujube recovery pattern has the best soil moisture condition. Soil pH value was between 7.91~ 8.72, and soil was alkaline in nature. Salsola, Lycium ruthenicum and Jujube are all salinity or salt-secreting plant for desalination of saline, which significantly reduced tatal salt content in the upper layer soil (0-30cm). And 50cm soil layer following changes were not significant. 3. Ecological restoration significantly improved soil fertility statue. Except total K other nutrition indexes showed obvious surface aggregation phenomenon, 50cm was a variation of differentiated layers. The soil nutrient index(SIN) of different vegetation restoration patterns displayed: 3 year Jujube (0.84)>2 years Jujube (0.73)>half of E. angustifolia (0.72)>1 Lycium ruthenicum (0.69)>4 year Jujube (0.61)>before restoration (0.01). Vegetation restoration on soil nutrient improvement effect was remarkable. 3 year Jujube recovery pattern was most obvious on soil improvement, and 3 year Jujube recovery pattern was relatively worst, which may be related to plant biomass. 4. By calculating different vegetation restoration patterns of direct economic benefits (economic production-invest ratio, labor productivity and land production relation) and indirect economic benefits (maintain soil fertility value), results showed that: 3 year Jujube recovery pattern has the highest economic production-invest ratio, which showed an increasing trend with the restoration years increased. It indicted that the capital utilization efficiency and economic are increasing with the increase of the recovery period. Because of Lycium ruthenicum market rising price, 1 Lycium ruthenicum recovery pattern is of the highest labor productivity and land production relation. In addition to half of E. angustifolia recovery pattern, other vegetation recovery patterns all efficient used local light, heat, water and other natural resources. The soil fertility maintaining value of different vegetation restoration is : 2 years Jujube>half of E. angustifolia>3 year Jujube>1 Lycium ruthenicum>4 year Jujube. 2 year Jujube recovery pattern maintained maximum soil fertility value, up to 64957 yuan/hm2. Vegetation restoration based eco-restoration, effectively improved the soil fertility status and saved the land of fertilizer inputs.
学科领域自然地理学
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.xjlas.org/handle/365004/14707
专题研究系统_荒漠环境研究室
作者单位中科院新疆生态与地理研究所
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
王日照. 荒漠--绿洲过渡带生态恢复效益评价[D]. 北京. 中国科学院大学,2016.
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