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利用微生物诱导碳酸钙沉淀固化尾矿
陈飞
学位类型硕士
导师潘响亮 ; 李笃中
2016
学位授予单位中国科学院大学
学位授予地点北京
学位专业环境科学
关键词尾矿 中度嗜盐菌 微生物 固化
摘要尾矿是冶炼厂在进行选矿分选作业中产生的废弃物,矿石在选矿过程中被分离出来的目标组分含量最低且不用的部分就被称为尾矿。由于过去对不可再生的矿产资源进行掠夺式的开采,以及开采冶炼过程中过分关注主矿产品的价值而忽略了其伴生组分的经济价值,使得如今尾矿成为我国乃至世界堆存量最多、综合利用率最低的固体废弃物。本研究针对新疆地区大量堆存的铜镍、铅锌、铜钼和金尾矿,首先从新疆博斯腾湖的水样中筛选出了一株耐盐碱的高效固化菌,经过鉴定为中度嗜盐菌Halomonas sp. SBC20;然后利用该菌固化尾矿,以固化后尾矿样品的无侧限抗压强度以及抗风蚀性为指标,通过单因素实验确定了耐盐碱高效固化菌Halomonas sp. SBC20的最佳固化条件,并以冻融实验研究尾矿样品经过固化后的适应性,以扫描电镜(SEM)和X射线色散能谱(EDX)验证微生物固化尾矿的过程,最后通过电感耦合等离子体质谱(ICP-MS)技术分析耐盐碱高效固化菌Halomonas sp. SBC20对尾矿中各种重金属的固定效果。本研究的主要结论如下: (1)本研究使用的耐盐碱高效固化菌是从博斯腾湖水样中筛选出的一株中度嗜盐菌Halomonas sp. SBC20。该菌具有很好的适应性,能在尾矿等淋滤液中很好的生长,并且在氯化钙存在的条件下能够快速与刺激因子A反应,达到快速固化尾矿的目的。 (2)铜镍尾矿的最佳固化条件为菌液浓度D600=0.7、8%的刺激因子A以及20mM的氯化钙,该条件下,铜镍尾矿固化后的最大无侧限抗压强度达到了224.9kPa,并且具有很好的抗冻融性能。耐盐高效固化菌Halomonas sp. SBC20对铜镍尾矿中锌的固定效果最好,固定率达到了55.4%,固定量在0.053μg/g左右;对镍固定量最多达到了1.24μg/g,固定率在21.4%;此外铜的固定率也达到了15%,固定量在0.13μg/g左右。 (3)铅锌尾矿的最佳固化条件为菌液浓度D600=0.9、8%的刺激因子A以及40mM的氯化钙,该条件下,铅锌尾矿固化后的最大无侧限抗压强度达到了176kPa,且具有很好的抗冻融性能。耐盐高效固化菌Halomonas sp. SBC20对铅锌尾矿中锌的固定量最多,达到了4.49μg/g左右,固定率也达到了67.5%;对铜的固定效果最好,固定率达到了85.5%,固定量为0.18μg/g左右;对铅的固定率也相对较高,达到了72.8%,固定量为0.016μg/g左右。 (4)铜钼尾矿的最佳固化条件为菌液浓度D600=0.7、4%的激因子A以及40mM的氯化钙,该条件下,铜钼尾矿固化后的最大无侧限抗压强度达到了178.2kPa,且具有很好的抗冻融性能。耐盐固化菌Halomonas sp. SBC20对铜钼尾矿中铜的固定量最高,达到了1.35μg/g,固定率为36.2%左右;对钼的固定效果最好,率固定达到了43.4%,固定量在0.48μg/g左右;耐盐固化菌对铜钼尾矿中的镍也有一定的固定效果,固定率为16.3%左右。 (5)金尾矿的最佳固化条件为菌液浓度D600=0.9、8%的激因子A以及60mM的氯化钙,该条件下,金尾矿固化后的最大无侧限抗压强度达到了231kPa,并且具有很好的抗冻融性能。耐盐高效固化菌Halomonas sp. SBC20对金尾矿中镍的固定效果最好,达到了95.7%,固定量也是最高的在0.36μg/g;该菌对金尾矿中铜的固定量达到了0.2μg/g,固定率为74%左右;耐盐固化菌对金尾矿中的锌和钼也有一定的固定效果,固定率分别为15.8%和34.3%。 (6)通过扫描电镜(SEM)和X射线色散能谱(EDX)进一步验证了耐盐固化菌Halomonas sp. SBC20通过诱导碳酸钙沉淀固化尾矿的过程,实验结果表明尾矿颗粒表面有大量方解石生成,两个尾矿颗粒之间粘结物的主要成份也是方解石,说明方解石晶体能够将尾矿颗粒粘结为一个整体,达到固化尾矿的目的。
其他摘要Tailings are wastes of the smelter beneficiation, which the lowest part of the content of useful target component is called tailings. Nowdays, Since the brutal mining methods and paid much attention to the value of the primary minerals and ignore its associated components, tailings have become the waste which is the most Stockpiling and the lowest comprehensive utilization rate.In this study, In order to against a large number of copper-nickel, lead-zinc, copper-molybdenum and gold tailings stockpiling in the Xinjiang region, we screened out a moderately cured bacteria from Bosten Lake water, which was identified as Halomonas sp. SBC20. The unconfined compressive strength and resistance to erosion as an index, through single factor experiments to determine the optimum curing conditions of the bacteria Halomonas sp. SBC20 and tested tailings samplesfreeze-thaw adaptabilityafter curing. Additionally, we through scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray dispersive spectroscopy (EDX) validatedthe process of microbial induced calcite preciptation. Finally, technical analysis Salt cured bacteria Halomonas sp. SBC20 tailings in the heavy-metal fixed effects by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS).Finally, we analysesed the fixed effects using the technical analysis of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The main conclusions in this work are: (1) usedIn this study the bacteriumwas selected from the Bosten Lake water and was identified as Halomonas sp. SBC20. This bacterium has good adaptability and can grow well in the tailings leachate.Halomonas sp. SBC20 is able to quickly generate CaCO3 precipitation decomposition of urea to achieve rapid curing tailings purposes. (2)Optimal curing conditions for the copper-nickel tailings were bacterial concentrationD600=0.7, 8% of shock factor Aand 20mM CaCl2. At the optimal conditions, the maximum compressive strength of nickel-copper tailings was 224.9kPaand had very good freeze-thaw resistance after curing. The best of zinc tailings in copper-nickelreached 55.4%, and a fixed amount of 0.053μg/g. The nickel fixed amount reached 1.24μg/g, and a fixed rate achieved 21.4%. Then again, the fixed rate of copper in copper-nickel reached 15%, a fixed amount of 0.13μg/g. (3) Optimal curing conditions for thelead-zinc tailings were bacterial concentrationD600=0.9, 8% of shock factor A and 40mM CaCl2. At the optimal conditions, the maximum compressive strength of lead-zinc tailings reached 176kPaand had very well freeze-thaw resistance after curing. The best of zinc tailings inlead-zincreached 67.5%, and a fixed amount of 4.49μg/g. The Cufixed amount reached 0.18μg/g, and a fixed rate achieved85.5%. Then again, the fixed rate of Pb inlead-zinc tailings reached 72.8%, a fixed amount of 0.016μg/g. (4) Optimal curing conditions for thecopper-molybdenum tailingswere bacterial concentrationD600=0.7, 4% of shock factor A and 40mM CaCl2. At the optimal conditions, the maximum compressive strength of copper-molybdenum tailings reached 178.2kPaand had very well freeze-thaw resistance after curing. The best of copperincopper-molybdenum tailings reached 36.2%, and a fixed amount of 1.35μg/g. The molybdenumfixed amount reached 0.48μg/g, and a fixed rate achieved43.4%. And the fixed rate of Ni incopper-molybdenum tailings reached 16.3%. (5) Optimal curing conditions for thegold tailings were bacterial concentrationD600=0.9, 8% of urea and 60mM CaCl2. At the optimal conditions, the maximum compressive strength of gold tailings reached 231kPaand had very well freeze-thaw resistance after curing. The best of Ni tailings ingoldreached 95.7%, and a fixed amount of 0.36μg/g. The Aufixed amount reached 0.2μg/g, and a fixed rate achieved74%. Then again, the fixed rate of Zn and Ni ingold tailings reached 15.8% and 34.3% respectively. (6)By scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray dispersive spectroscopy (EDX) further validated the process ofHalomonas sp. SBC20 cured tailings using inducing calcium carbonate precipitation. The experimental results showed that a large number of calcite particle covered tailings surface,the agglutinated main componentswas calcite between two tailings particles. All of these description calcite crystals made tailings particles were bonded as a whole, and achieved the purpose ofsolidification tailings.
学科领域环境科学
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.xjlas.org/handle/365004/14718
专题研究系统_荒漠环境研究室
作者单位中科院新疆生态与地理研究所
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
陈飞. 利用微生物诱导碳酸钙沉淀固化尾矿[D]. 北京. 中国科学院大学,2016.
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