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且末河东防沙治沙生态工程小气候效应研究
杨兴虎
学位类型硕士
导师徐新文
2016
学位授予单位中国科学院大学
学位授予地点北京
学位专业环境工程
关键词防沙治沙 生态工程 小气候效应 塔克拉玛干沙漠南缘 且末
摘要为了探讨沙漠绿洲过渡带不同林龄的防护林对区域内小气候的影响,揭示风速、温、湿度等气象要素的时空变化以及降尘的时空分布规律。针对且末绿洲外围大型区块状防护林生态屏障,设置了5个观测点,采用小型自动气象站对防护林区和裸露流沙区的风速、空气温、湿度进行连续同步观测,采用自记地温仪对地表土壤温度进行连续定位观测,利用干式收集法和风蚀降尘收集装置对区域降尘进行收集,研究结果表明: (1)裸露流沙区风速大于防护林区的风速,表明研究区防护林的建立增加了地表粗糙度,可以有效降低防护区域的风速,防护林具备了一定的防风效应。并且随着林龄的增大,防护林削弱近地面空气湍流交换作用的强度在增强,表明在一定时间范围内,随着林龄的增大,防护林的防风效能也在增大。风速日变化总体表现为:白天>夜晚,裸露流沙地>防护林区。相同林龄的防护林,随着风速的增大,防风效能是有所下降的。 (2)裸露流沙区平均气温高于防护林区,表明防护林具有一定的降温效应,并且林龄越大,降温效应也越明显。但林龄较小的防护林降温效应较小,降温效果差异不明显。夜间,裸露流沙地的气温普遍高于防护林区;白天,部分防护林区会出现气温高于裸露流沙地的现象。5月、8月、11月裸露流沙地和防护林区最低气温出现的时刻几乎是同步的,但随着季节的推移,各观测点出现最低气温的时间也随之向后推移。5月、8月出现最高气温的时刻也基本是同步的,随着季节的推移,最高气温出现的时刻有所提前;但11月裸露流沙地和防护林区最高气温的出现却出现滞后现象。 (3)防护林区的空气湿度均高于裸露流沙地,表明防护林具有显著的增湿效应。并且林龄越大,增湿效应越强。夜晚空气湿度总是大于白天,防护林在夜晚的增湿效应表现的更为明显。 5月、8月、11月裸露流沙地和防护林区出现最大湿度的时刻几乎也是同步的;5月、8月各观测点出现最小湿度的时刻也是同步的,但11月防护林区出现最小湿度的时刻相比裸露流沙地有一定的滞后。 (4)防护林对土壤温度具有调节作用,在不同月份,土壤温度随深度的变化具有明显的差异性,8月份,5cm深度土壤温度高于10cm深度的温度;11月份,5cm深度的土壤温度低于10cm深度的温度,表明不同季节,地表土壤温度随深度的变化具有差异性。 (5)防护林(2a、5a、7a、17a)区域观测点的降尘量呈现出逐步增大的趋势,表明随着防护林林龄的增大,降尘量也增大,滞尘效应增强。春、夏两季的降尘量相对较大,其中,7月的降尘量达到年内最大值。秋季降尘量相对较小,其中,11月份的降尘量达到年内最小值。
其他摘要In order to investigate the effect of different desert oasis Ecotone age shelterbelt forest microclimate of the region, reveal temporal and spatial variation wind speed, temperature, humidity and other weather factors and the temporal and spatial distribution of dust. For the peripheral region Qiemo oasis shelterbelt massive ecological barrier, set up five observation points, a small automatic weather station on the shelterbelt area and exposed area of quicksand wind speed, air temperature, humidity, continuous simultaneous observation of the surface soil temperature continuously observation, using a dry method of collecting dust collection, preliminary study showed that: (1) Greater than the bare sand area Winds Winds shelterbelt area, study area established shelterbelt showed increased surface roughness, can effectively reduce the wind speed protection area, shelter with a certain amount of wind effects. With increasing age and forest, shelterbelt weaken the near-ground air turbulence in the enhanced role of the exchange, indicating that within a certain time frame, with the forest age increases, also increases the effectiveness of protective forest wind. Winds from the date of change the overall performance: day>night, bare quicksand>Shelterbelt area. I'm the same age shelterbelts, along with the increase of wind speed, wind performance is somewhat decreased. (2) Higher than the average temperature of the bare sand area shelterbelt area, it shows shelterbelt has a cooling effect, and forest age the greater cooling effect more obvious. Shelterbelt forest age but smaller cooling effect is small, the cooling effect of the difference is not obvious. Night exposed to temperatures generally higher than quicksand shelterbelt area; daytime temperatures will be part of the protection forest above the bare quicksand phenomenon. May, August, November and shelterbelts bare moment quicksand area minimum temperature appeared almost simultaneously, but over the season, each observation time point appears minimum temperature also will be pushed down. In May, the moment of maximum temperatures in August also appears substantially synchronized with the passage of the seasons, time maximum temperature somewhat in advance; but in November bare quicksand and shelterbelts highest temperature region is lagging behind the emergence of the phenomenon. (3) Protection forest areas are higher than bare ground quicksand, shelterbelts showed a significant moisturizing effect. And forest age, the stronger the effect of humidification. Night air humidity is always greater than during the day, the effect is more obvious in a humidified shelterbelt night performance. May, August, November and bare sand shelterbelt zone in time to maximum humidity is almost synchronized; May and August each observation time point appears a minimum humidity is synchronous, but in November shelterbelt zone in the smallest humidity time compared to bare ground quicksand a certain lag. (4) For protection of the soil temperature has a regulatory role in different months, the soil temperature with depth has a significant difference, in August, 5cm depth soil temperature is above 10cm depth temperature; November, 5cm depth soil temperature low temperature at 10cm depth, indicating different seasons, surface soil temperature with depth with a difference. (5) Protection Forest (2a, 5a, 7a, 17a) the amount of dust in the area of the observation point showing a gradual increasing trend shows that with the protection forest in age increases, also increases the amount of dust. Spring, summer and autumn the amount of dust is relatively large, wherein the amount of dust in July reached a maximum during the year. A relatively small amount of dust fall, wherein the amount of dust in November reached a minimum during the year.
学科领域环境工程
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.xjlas.org/handle/365004/14724
专题研究系统_荒漠环境研究室
作者单位中科院新疆生态与地理研究所
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
杨兴虎. 且末河东防沙治沙生态工程小气候效应研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院大学,2016.
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