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三工河流域绿洲荒漠景观土地利用/覆被变化与地表热效应分析
张琪
学位类型硕士
导师李龙辉 ; 罗格平
2016
学位授予单位中国科学院大学
学位授予地点北京
学位专业地图学与地理信息系统
关键词土地利用/土地覆被变化(lucc) 绿洲 荒漠 地表热效应
摘要土地利用/土地覆被变化(land-use/land-cover changes, LUCC)的定量评估,多集中在资源环境卫星数据广泛应用的近40年,在这之前较为准确刻画LUCC过程的信息严重不足,尤其是干旱区,这不利于全面认识和评估LUCC对气候变化和水/碳循环的影响。本文以天山北坡三工河流域为研究区,基于黑白航片、彩红外航片、Landsat-TM影像、SPOT5、Landsat-OLI影像,定义了现代绿洲及其外围荒漠景观土地利用/土地覆被(land use and land cover, LULC)类型,重建1950s以来的土地利用/土地覆被(LULC)数据集,并基于数理统计模型分析了在绿洲演变过程中LUCC特征。为了更好表征城市LUCC变化,对绿洲城市(镇)用地进一步细分为透水地表(pervious surface area,PSA)和不透水地表(impervious surface area,ISA),并分析了其时空变化。基于1989-2014年Landsat TM/ETM/OLI影像数据,反演得到了绿洲及其外围荒漠地表温度(land surface temperature, LST)时空分布,进一步分析了在绿洲演变和绿洲城市扩张的背景下,绿洲、绿洲城市以及外围荒漠的热效应时空变化特征。主要结论如下: (1)1949-2014年,三工河流域绿洲扩大了162km2。1950s和2000s在“兵团早期大生产运动”和“农业现代化”的背景下绿洲LUCC最为显著,是探讨绿洲演变过程中不可或缺的一部分。整个绿洲的发展是“兵团管理”、“地方管辖”两种不同的管理模式共同推动。1958-1968年,1998-2014年兵团管理区是绿洲演变的主要贡献区域;1968-1998年地方管辖区是绿洲演变的主要贡献区域。绿洲主要是由土质荒漠转化而来的,其中位于绿洲边缘的柽柳和梭梭群落受绿洲扩张的影响缩减程度最大。三工河流域1950s-2004年现代绿洲演变具有干旱区绿洲演变的普遍特征,但2004年以后的演变仅适用于有较大规模跨流域调水或新增水源的绿洲演变情形。 (2)2004-2014年,阜康及准东石油基地的城市建设用地的范围扩张了1.5倍,不透水表面显著增加。在新城区不透水表面的扩张主要表现在面积的增加—在阜康市东南部分由于工矿用地的增加表现尤为明显;老城区主要表现为不透水表面丰度的数值增加,裸土丰度的数值显著下降,可能存在大面积裸土转化不透水表面。 (3)绿洲及外围荒漠的地表温度,在以城镇为中心向外围荒漠的方向上,呈现“热—冷—热”,这种现象在夏、秋季节表现得较为明显,2014年比2004年明显。绿洲及外围荒漠地表温度的差异与土地利用/土地覆被类型相关;在地表温度的年际变化中,绿洲相对于外围荒漠的冷岛效应强度以及城市相对于外围绿洲的热岛效应强度均呈增加趋势;在地表温度的季节变化中,夏、秋季节城市区域的地表温度高于外围绿洲。而在城市内部,新、老城区地表温度存在差异,可能与地表组分丰度数值差异相关,但两者相互影响机制仍需进一步探讨。
其他摘要The evaluations of land-use and land-cover changes (LUCC) in the arid region was scarcely quantified before 1980s due to the unavailability of data, resulting in our little knowledge of the effects of LUCC on climate change and carbon/water cycle in that period. In this study, we investigated the evolution of Sangong river basin oasis since 1950s by using seven land cover maps derived from black-and-white aerial photographs (1958, 1968 and 1978), color-infrared aerial photograph (1987), Landsat TM imagery (1998), SPOT (2004) and Landsat OLI images (2014). To present LUCC in urban, we divided urban land surface into impervious surface area (ISA), and pervious surface area (PSA). Besides, both annual variation and seasonal variation of surface heat environment based on land surface temperature (LST) was retrieved by Landsat TM/OLI during the period of oasis expansion and urbanization were analysised. Results show that: (1) Since 1950s, the oasis area consecutively increased to 162 km2. Under the background of "mass production movement by Xinjiang Production and Construction Corps" and "agricultural modernization", 1950s and 2000s were the most essential periods. Two basic management modes, "local mode" formed by the local governments and "farm management mode" developed by Xinjiang Production and Construction Corps, together promote oasis evolution with various LUCC stages. Oasis expanded by shrinking of the peripheral desert landscapes which are dominated by haloxylon community and tamarix community. The evolution of modern oasis during 1950s-2004 shows common features of most arid oasis, while the period during 2004-2014 is characterized by importing large-scale inter-basin water diversion or some new water sources. (2) The impervious surface significantly increased during 2004 and 2014, and the built-up expanded 1.5 times. The expansion of impervious surface in the new urban area was mainly manifested in the area expansion. The main performance of the old urban area was the increasing of the impervious surface abundance, the bare soil abundance was significantly decreased. Thus there may be a large area transformed from bare soil to ISA. (3) The land surface temperature (LST) spatial distribution showed hot-cold-hot pattern from city center to desert. This spatial pattern was more notable in summer and autumn on season level, more obvious in 2014 than 2004. In annual variation of the LST, the strength of the cold island of oasis and the hot island of urban showed an increasing trend. The LST difference between old urban area and new urban area maybe was related to the difference of abundance in land surface components, but mutual influence mechanism still needs to be further discussed.
学科领域地图学与地理信息系统
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.xjlas.org/handle/365004/14727
专题研究系统_荒漠环境研究室
作者单位中科院新疆生态与地理研究所
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
张琪. 三工河流域绿洲荒漠景观土地利用/覆被变化与地表热效应分析[D]. 北京. 中国科学院大学,2016.
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