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三种荒漠植物幼苗对沙埋条件的生理生态响应
邹飏阳
学位类型硕士
导师徐新文
2016
学位授予单位中国科学院大学
学位授予地点北京
学位专业水土保持与荒漠化防治
关键词沙埋 梭梭 柠条 沙拐枣 生理生态响应
摘要塔里木沙漠公路是新疆南部的交通命脉,塔克拉玛干沙漠强烈频繁的风沙作用严重危害沙漠公路及其机械防沙体系,以生物防风固沙措施为主体的塔里木沙漠公路防护林生态工程体系建设既保障沙漠公路的畅通,又改善生态环境。植物的抗逆研究是沙漠公路防护林生态工程建设中植物种筛选和物种更新的基础工作。为确保生物防沙体系的稳定性和沙漠腹地油田职工生活环境的绿化需求都要求提供适宜的植物物种。在此背景下,我们开展塔克拉玛干沙漠腹地的植物抗逆性研究工作,从而为塔中地区适宜植物物种的全面选择提供依据。 本研究以梭梭、柠条和沙拐枣为试验材料,研究了三种植物幼苗对不同程度的人工沙埋处理(包括CK空白对照、1/3沙埋、2/3沙埋、3/3沙埋四个处理)的生理生态响应。通过测定三种植物株高、,幼苗叶片相对含水量(RWC)、丙二醛(MDA)、超氧化物岐化酶(SOD)、过氧化物酶(POD)、可溶性糖(Sugar)、叶绿素(Chl),分析研究沙埋对三种植物幼苗的生理生态影响,结果表明: (1)在不同沙埋处理下三种植物幼苗株高均呈现先下降再升高再下降的趋势,并在2/3沙埋处理下株高达到最大值,说明1/3和3/3沙埋抑制了三中植物幼苗的生长,而2/3沙埋对植物幼苗生长有一定的促进作用。 (2)梭梭、柠条、沙拐枣三种植物幼苗在不同沙埋处理下叶片相对含水量变现为1/3 > 2/3 > CK > 3/3,随沙埋时间增加三种植物叶片相对含水量呈现递减趋势,不同树种之间叶片相对含水量表现为梭梭 > 沙拐枣> 柠条,但是各处理之间均不存在显著性差异,说明在水分充足的情况下沙埋胁迫对植物幼苗叶片的相对含水量影响不大。 (3)在沙埋胁迫下,MDA含量会有不同程度的增减,研究结果表明:梭梭随时间的增加MDA含量先升高后降低,柠条与沙拐枣随时间的增加MDA含量逐渐降低。MDA含量的升高说明随时间的延长植物体内自由基积累增多,膜脂过氧化加剧,幼苗受到影响增大,随时间继续延长MDA含量开始降低说明植物体内自由基逐渐清除,膜脂过氧化减缓,幼苗受到的影响减慢。当沙埋时间达到30 d时,三种植物幼苗在S3处理下全部死亡,说明全埋胁迫使植物达到了不可逆转的破坏。 (4)随着沙埋程度的增加和沙埋时间的延长,柠条幼苗的可溶性糖含量较其它两种植物总维持在一个较高水平,说明其合成更多的可溶性糖参与渗透调节,使其适应胁迫环境。相比较而言,沙埋10 d时不同沙埋程度对三种植物幼苗的可溶性糖含量有影响但变化幅度不大,说明沙埋胁迫初期对细胞膜系统没有造成明显的破坏。 (5)在沙埋胁迫初期梭梭与沙拐枣幼苗叶片SOD活性的上升,随着沙埋胁迫时间延长,在胁迫后期梭梭幼苗叶片SOD活性下降但仍能维持在一个较高水平,说明随着沙埋时间的延长梭梭与沙拐枣幼苗能建立一个稳定的SOD保护酶活性系统使活性氧代谢处于一定的平衡。柠条幼苗叶片SOD活性随沙埋胁迫时间延长持续下降,而MDA的含量较其它两种植物却维持在一个较高水平,说明柠条合成SOD能力较弱,沙埋胁迫对其生理影响较大。梭梭与柠条幼苗叶片POD活性在不同沙埋胁迫下随着沙埋时间的延长先降低再升高,而梭梭则持续升高,在不同胁迫因素作用下对三种植物幼苗叶片POD与SOD活性的增加并无明显同步性。 (6)不同程度的沙埋对植物叶绿素a含量影响无明显规律性变化,但当沙埋为S3时植物幼苗叶绿素含量略微呈现下降趋势,说明轻度沙埋对三种植物幼苗叶片叶绿素a含量无显著影响。然而随着沙埋时间的延长叶绿素a含量呈明显的增长趋势。 (7)梭梭与柠条在沙埋10 d时随着沙埋深度的增加叶绿素b含量基本不变,而沙拐枣叶绿素b含量在逐步下降,说明沙埋胁迫时间较短时叶绿素b含量的下降会降低活性氧产生的可能性,甚至不会产生更多的活性氧,梭梭、柠条、沙拐枣都具有这样的性质。随着沙埋时间的延长三种植物幼苗叶片叶绿素b含量均呈明显的上升趋势。当沙埋时间达到30 d时梭梭幼苗叶片叶绿素b含量开始下降,沙拐枣叶绿素b含量则处于稳定水平,变化不大。说明长时间沙埋会对植物体造成一定的伤害。 (8)沙埋胁迫下三种植物幼苗叶片叶绿素a/b比值变化,梭梭幼苗叶片叶绿素a/b值随着沙埋深度的增加呈现先降低后上升的趋势,可能因为一定程度的沙埋降低了类囊体膜的稳定性,但随着沙埋程度的加大植物为维持自身生长所需物质,提高自身抗逆性,从而使类囊体膜稳定性有所升高,提高光合作用。柠条随沙埋时间的延长及沙埋深度的增加幼苗叶片叶绿素a/b值逐渐减小,说明沙埋胁迫对柠条生长造成了一定迫害,使其光合作用受到影响。
其他摘要Tarim desert highway is one of the southern Xinjiang transportation lifeline. TaklimakanDesert frequent and intense of sand blown by wind are a serious threat to the desert highway, and its mechanical sand prevention system. To biological sand control measures as the main body of the Tarim Desert Highway Shelterbelt ecological engineering construction can not only protect the desert highway unblocked, but also improve ecological environment. The research on plant resistance is the basic work of plant species selection and regeneration in the ecological engineering construction of desert highway shelter forest. In order to ensure the biological sand control system's stability and the hinterland of the desert oil field workers living environment greening requirements are required to provide suitable plant species. In this context, we carry out in the hinterland of the Taklimakan desert plant resistance research work, and provide a basis for the tower area suitable for the plant species of the comprehensive selection. This study in Haloxylon ammodendron(C.A.Mey.) Bunge, Caragana korshinkii and Calligonum caput-medusae Schrenk experimental materials of three kinds of plant seeds and seedlings of different degrees of artificial sand burial (including blank control, sand burial 1/3, 2/3 sand burial, 3/3 sand buried four treatments) physiological and ecological response. Through the determination of three species of plant height, crown width, seedling leaf relative water content (RWC), MDA, SOD and POD, Sugar, chlorophyll (Chl) and photosynthetic parameters and analysis of sand buried for three plant seedlings physiological ecology were studied. The results showed that: (1) In different sand buried treatment under three kinds of plant seedling high showed decreased at first and then increased and then decreased trend, and in 2/3 of the sand buried height reaches the maximum value, 1/3 and 3/3 sand buried inhibited the growth of seedlings of mountain plants, and two thirds of the sand buried a certain role in promoting the growth of plant seedling. (2) H. ammodendron, C. korshinkii, C. caput-medusae three plant seedlings in different sand buried leaves relative water content is realized for 1/3 > 2/3 > CK > 3/3, with sand burial time increase leaf relative water content showed a decreasing trend, the different species of the leaf relative water was H. ammodendron > C. caput-medusae > C. korshinkii, but between the treatments do not exist significant differences to the realization of content, indicating that in sufficient water Xiasha burial stress on plant seedling leaf relative water content has little effect. (3) Under sand burial stress, the MDA content will increase or decrease in different degree. The research results show that: H. ammodendron with time increase MDA content first increased and then decreased, because C. korshinkii and C. caput-medusae with time increase MDA content decreased gradually. The content of MDA that increases with the time extension of the plant in the accumulation of free radical increased, membrane lipid peroxidation increased seedlings affected increases, with time to extend the MDA content decreased plant in vivo free radical gradually cleared, membrane lipid peroxidation of slow, seedlings subjected to the effect of slow. When the sand buried time reached 30 d, three kinds of plant seedlings were all killed in S3 treatment, which showed that the whole plant had been forced to reach irreversible damage. (4) With sand burial degree increasing and sand burial time prolonged,C. korshinkii seedling soluble sugar content than the other two plants always maintain the at a higher level, indicating that the synthesis more soluble sugar involved in osmotic adjustment, to adapt to environmental stress. In comparison, the soluble sugar content of three kinds of plant seedlings was affected by sand burial 10d, but the change was not significant, which showed that there was no significant damage to the membrane system in the early stage of sand burial stress. (5) In the sand burial stress rise of H. ammodendron and C. caput-medusae seedling leaves and the SOD activity in the early, with sand burial stress time prolonging, stress in the late H. ammodendron seedling leaves and the SOD activity decreased but still maintained at a higher level that with sand buried time extension of H. ammodendron and C. caput-medusae seedlings to establish a stable protective enzyme SOD activity system active oxygen metabolism in a certain balance. C. korshinkii seedling leaves and the SOD activity with sand burial stress time prolonging continued to decline, and MDA content than other two plants remained at a high level, indicating that C. korshinkii SOD synthesis ability is weak, sand burial stress has a great influence on the physiology. H. ammodendron and C. korshinkii seedling leaf POD activity in different sand burial stress decreased first and then increased along with the increase in the time of sand burial, and H. ammodendron continued to increase, under different stress factors of three kinds of plant of pod and SOD activity increased and no obvious synchronization. (6) With different levels of sand buried no notable regular change of plant Chla content, but when the sand burial S3 showing plant chlorophyll content was slightly decreased, indicating mild sand burying on three kinds of plant Chla content had no significant effect. However, the content of Chla was obviously increased with the increasing of sand burying time. (7) H. ammodendron and C. korshinkii in sand burial 10d with sand burial depth increased the content of Chlb is essentially the same, and C. caput-medusae chlorophyll b content decreased gradually. It showed that the decrease of Chlb content in short sand buried treatment decreased the probability of ROS production, and even did not produce excessive reactive oxygen species, which is the common character of these three kinds of plants. The content of Chlb in leaves of three kinds of plant seedlings was significantly increased with the time of sand burying. With the sand burial time up to 30 days of H. ammodendron seedlings Chlb content began to decrease, C. caput-medusae Chlb content in stable level, little change. It shows that long sand burial can cause some damage to the plant body. (8) Sand burial stress under three kinds of plant Chl a/b ratio changes, the H. ammodendron seedlings Chl a/b value increases with the depth of sand burial trend of decreased first and then increased, probably because of a certain degree of sand burial reduces the stability of thylakoid membranes, but with the degree of sand burying increase plant in order to maintain their own materials necessary for growth and improve its resistance, so that the stability of thylakoid membrane increased and increased photosynthesis. C. korshinkii with sand buried the extension of time and sand burial depth increased Chla/b value decreases gradually, indicating that the sand burial stress on growth of C. caput-medusae caused certain persecution, which affected the photosynthesis.
学科领域水土保持与荒漠化防治
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.xjlas.org/handle/365004/14729
专题研究系统_荒漠环境研究室
作者单位中科院新疆生态与地理研究所
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
邹飏阳. 三种荒漠植物幼苗对沙埋条件的生理生态响应[D]. 北京. 中国科学院大学,2016.
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