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世界自然遗产监测综合体系研究——以新疆天山为例
王昭国
学位类型博士
导师杨兆萍
2016
学位授予单位中国科学院大学
学位授予地点北京
学位专业人文地理学
关键词遗产监测 世界自然遗产 新疆天山 监测网络优化 博格达
摘要世界自然遗产是地球演化过程中形成的具有突出科学与美学价值的自然精华区域,在全球生态多样性保护、景观多样性保护和濒危动植物保护中的起到关键作用,其保护与管理在世界范围内得到了持续关注。遗产监测是重要的保护管理工具,能够对世界自然遗产面临的人类及自然威胁进行预警,为遗产管理者提供决策依据,保障遗产地及其价值的完整保存。新疆天山世界自然遗产地处多民族的偏远地区,普遍面临着过度放牧和保护管理规划不足的问题,需要进一步完善监测体系,开展遗产监测研究,并制定合理的保护管理规划。 文章在全面梳理文献研究,总结已有监测工作的基础上,界定遗产监测的内涵及监测内容,并构建遗产监测综合体系框架,为世界自然遗产的保护与监测提供理论工具。对新疆天山进行了实证研究,提出新疆天山监测指标体系,以及监测保障措施,并选取博格达进行遗产监测网络优化应用示范研究,从而为新疆天山的保护与监测提供科技支撑,丰富世界遗产保护理论。 本文主要结论如下: (1)基于对遗产监测的广泛文献阅读和工作总结,结合世界自然遗产威胁因素分析,提出遗产监测内涵及其特征;根据遗产保护管理目标,提出包括监测指标体系框架、监测网络优化框架以及监测保障机制等内容的遗产监测综合体系框架,指导世界自然遗产的监测工作。 (2)通过实地调研,评估新疆天山的保护管理现状,结合新疆天山遗产价值研究,确定了遗产价值保护、遗产地发展、威胁因素治理的保护管理目标。根据各遗产地的实际情况,筛选具体的监测对象和内容,并布局通用监测和特定监测两类监测项目,以满足新疆天山系列遗产的保护管理特点。基于国内外已有的监测项目的标准和研究,提出相应的监测指标体系,及时、全面地反映新疆天山遗产价值的动态变化。 (3)基于多次的实地调研和管理者访谈,发现新疆天山的保护与监测工作受到来自保护管理体制、人才队伍、资金等因素的制约,且各遗产地间的监测工作开展方式和水平存在差异。结合对56位管理者进行的开放式问卷调查,发现管理者对新疆天山的监测工作普遍持积极态度。通过建立健全的保护管理机制、提供稳定的资金支持、充实保护与监测队伍、制定规范化的监测制度等,能够保障新疆天山得到有效的保护与监测。各遗产地应结合自身的实际情况,参照已有的政府单一部门主导模式、多利益相关者的协同模式、第三方监测模式、国际组织的监督监测模式,采取适宜的措施和模式,从而保障遗产监测工作的顺利开展,提升遗产保护管理水平。 (4)运用多准则决策分析方法,对博格达遗产监测网络体系进行优化研究。基于博格达已有监测工作,分析现有监测工作不足,并提出博格达的遗产监测网络布局的原则。构建博格达监测网络优化数据库,在确定监测优先区和可行区的基础上,得到博格达的监测适宜区。综合博格达监测需求和监测网络布局原则,规划布局适用于博格达的监测网络体系,为博格达的遗产监工作提供科技支撑。
其他摘要World Natural Heritage sites (WNHs) are the region with outstanding scientific and aesthetic values during the evolution of earth, which play a key role in the preservation of the diversity of ecology and landscape, and rare and endangered species. They have being under consistent attention in the world. Monitoring, an important tool of protection and management of WNHs, can provide early warning for possible and existed threats to managers, and this will be helpful for managers to make reasonable decision to protect our treasures. Xinjiang Tianshan, located in remotely and multi-ethnical region, threatened by over-grazing and lacking protection and management plans. It is in urgent need to improve the monitoring system and establish scientific protection and management plans. Firstly, relevant researches and existed monitoring works on WNHs were summarized in the research. And then, the thesis defined the content of heritage monitoring and its characteristics, put forward the framework of the comprehensive system of heritage monitoring, which is a useful tool to improve the protection and monitoring of WNHs. Lastly, the study took the Xinjiang Tianshan as an example, put forward the monitoring indicators system, safeguard measures, and optimized monitoring system of Bogda, to guide and strengthen its’ protection and management. The research would provide technical support for the protection and monitoring of Xinjiang Tianshan, enrich the theory of WNHs protection. Conclusions of the thesis are as follows: (1) Based on intensive study of the researches and a large number of works of heritage monitoring, and the analysis on the threats to WNHs, the thesis proposed the connotation of heritage monitoring, and the target of protection and management of WNHs. Then, the thesis put forward a framework consisted by indicators system of heritage monitoring, optimization model of monitoring system, and supporting measures, guiding the protection and monitoring of WNHs. (2) On the basis of investigations on each sites of Xinjiang Tianshan, and the communication with experts and local managers, the thesis established reasonable target of protection and management. Finally, it was found that the preservation of heritage values, development of heritage sites, and the simulation of threats, are the target of the protection and management of Xinjiang Tianshan. General and specific monitoring programs were planned to each sites according to its needs and characteristics. Monitoring indicators could be classified into state indicators and threat indicators. And, indicators system of heritage monitoring were established based on the criteria and methods of monitoring programs in the world. (3) The protection and monitoring of Xinjiang Tianshan has being restricted by complicated management systems, and shortage of professional managers and finance, according to the investigation on each sites and interview with mangers. It was also found that the managers hold positive attitude towards the monitoring on Xinjiang Tianshan based on the open questionnaire survey of 56 local managers. The results revealed that Xinjiang Tianshan would be protected effectively by establishing round protection and management system, providing stable fund, recruiting professional managers, and standardized monitoring institution. Each site of Xinjiang Tianshan should choose suitable mode to carry out heritage monitoring. (4) Bogda was selected as the example to study the optimization of monitoring system with multi-decision making. Firstly, the thesis analyzed the existed monitoring in Bogda, and put forward the rules to distribute monitoring sites to meet the target of the protection and management. Secondly, a database and the model of the optimization of Bogda were established to determine suitable monitoring region. Lastly, the thesis proposed a planned monitoring system of Bogda based on above analysis, supporting the protection of Bogda.
学科领域人文地理学
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.xjlas.org/handle/365004/14733
专题研究系统_荒漠环境研究室
作者单位中科院新疆生态与地理研究所
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
王昭国. 世界自然遗产监测综合体系研究——以新疆天山为例[D]. 北京. 中国科学院大学,2016.
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