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塔里木河水系变迁与古城池演变分析
张永雷
学位类型硕士
导师陈亚宁
2016
学位授予单位中国科学院大学
学位授予地点北京
学位专业自然地理学
关键词河道变迁 古城池 时空演变 原因分析 塔里木河
摘要塔里木河是新疆人民的为“母亲河”。然而,她在历史时期曾发生过重大变迁,因频繁改道而又被冠以“无缰之马”。它的每一次改道和变化都对塔里木盆地的生态环境以及河流沿线古城池的兴衰产生了重大影响,古城池、古文明因河流改道而废弃、消失的例子屡见不鲜,如楼兰文明、海头文明等等。本文结合史记和相关文献,对过去2000年塔里木河流域水系变化以及古城池的变迁轨迹和兴衰历史进行了梳理,并分析了塔里木河河道变迁与古城池兴衰的关系及塔里木河变迁的驱动力。 查史记发现,在过去的2000年间,塔里木河一直表现为由南向北移动并逐步萎缩的态势:北魏(约公元386年)以前,塔里木河由南河和北河构成,两者相距240km以上;北魏至唐中期(约公元755年),塔里木河南河北移约160-180km,使其失去2条源流并开始瓦解,同时北河下段北移60-85km;唐中期至元前夕(公元1225年),南河进一步瓦解,仅剩一条源流;元至清初(约公元1670年),南河仅存的一条源流北移约70km汇入北河,南河消失;清初至民国,塔里木河干流反复南北摆动,幅度为40-50km,最后仍回到清初位置;近60年来,塔里木河中游北移约50-100km。 在对塔里木盆地内记录较好的205座古城池信息统计过程中发现,古城池兴衰存在如下规律:在时间上,汉、唐、清三代为古城池建造和废弃高峰期(汉代新筑城77座,废弃32座;唐代新筑城43座,废弃77座;13座新城筑于清代,19座废弃);魏晋南北朝、五代十国和宋代、元明时期则为低谷期(魏晋南北朝新筑城20座,废弃19座;五代十国和宋代新筑城8座,废弃15座;元明新筑城9座,废弃10座)。在空间上,汉、唐、清三代古城池建造和废弃遍及整个塔里木盆地,其它历史时期则局限于盆地部分地区。 通过对比塔里木河水系的变迁轨迹与塔里木盆地古城池兴衰历史发现,塔里木河自北魏以来至整个唐代的大规模北移、干流在清代的南北摆动正是塔里木盆地古城池弃废的高峰期,河道变迁与古城池废弃存在较为明显的一致性。对40座具有确定废弃因素的古城池进行统计分析表明:废弃于河流改道和断流的古城池的26座,占65%;废弃于战争的11座,占27.5%;废弃于洪水、河流断流和战争、人为拆毁的各1座, 各占2.5%。表明河流改道和断流为古城池废弃的最主要因素,塔里木河水系变迁及由此引起的水资源时空变化从根本上决定着古城池的存亡。 研究分析,塔里木河河道变迁及北移是区域构造运动与地势特征、盛行风和沙丘移动、气候水文变化以及人为经济活动等多方面因素共同作用的结果。本文最后结合人类活动讨论了塔里木河未来3种可能的结局并提出治理建议,认为塔里木河不大可能回到昔时汪洋东逝的状态,也不会出现整个干流的断流干涸,而是继续保持目前“四源一干”态势,未来应当提高流域水资源管理水平,以保证流域经济和生态平衡。
其他摘要Tarim River is called the "Mother River" by people of Xinjiang privince. However, the Tarim River had been significant changed due to frequent diversions during the historical period, thus gained a nother vividly name "no reins of the horse". Every diversion and change were left a significant impact on the ecological environment of Tarim Basin especially ancient oasis' rise and fall along Tarim river, such as the disappearance of the Loulan civilization and Haitou civilization.The paper reviewed the river development tracks of Tarim River and the rise and fall of the ancient oasis along the river during the past 2,000 years by searching the historical records and related documents . We find from the historical records that Tarim River has been continually moving from the south to the north and gradually shrinking: Before the Northern Wei Dynasty (about AD 386), the Tarim River was consist of two rivers, the north river and the south river, and their distance was at least 240 kilometers; From the Northern Wei Dynasty to middle Tang Dynasty (about AD 755), the south river northward about 160-180 kilometers which made it lose two water sources and the beginning of collapse, meanwhile downstream of the north river northward 60-85 kilometers; From middle Tang Dynasty to the eve of Yuan Dynasty (AD 1225), the south river further collapsed and only one water source remained; From Yuan Dynasty to early days of Qing Dynasty (AD 1670), the only one water source of the south river northward about 70 kilometers flowing into the north river, and then the south river dried up and disappeared; From the early days of Qing Dynasty to the Republic, Tarim River repeatedly swung north and south for 40-50 kilometers, and eventually back to the initial position in early Qing Dynasty; Nearly 60 years, the middle reaches of Tarim River northward about 50-100 kilometers. In the statistical process of 205 ancient cities which were good recorded, we find that the rise and fall of them has the following rule : Ancient city's construction and discarding appeared peak In time, Han, Tang and Qing Dynasties (Han Dynasty constructed 77 new cities ,discarded 32; Tang Dynasty constructed 43 new cities ,discarded 77; Qing Dynasty constructed 13 new cities ,discarded 19); Wei and Jin Dynasty, Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms and Song Dynasty, Yuan and Ming dynasties were the trough (Wei and Jin Dynasty constructed 20 new cities ,discarded 19; Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms and Song Dynasty constructed 8 new cities, discarded 15; Yuan and Ming Dynasty constructed 9 new cities, discarded 10). In space, Han, Tang and Qing Dynasties ancient cities' construction and discarding throughout Tarim Basin while other historical periods are limited to parts of the basin. By comparing the evolution of the Tarim River with the history of ancient city's rise and fall, we fond that Tarim river northward by a large scale from the Northern Wei Dynasty to the whole Tang Dynasty and swung north and south in Qing Dynasty is exactly the period of ancient cities abandoned peak in Tarim basin. There is a obviously consistency between changes in river and ancient city's discarding. Statistical analysis to 40 cities that had determined abandoned factors showed that 26 cities were river diversions and drying, accounted 65%; 11 were war, accounted 27.5%; flood, changes in river and war, demolition one of each, accounted 2.5%. This showed that river diversions and drying are the main factors that lead to discarding of ancient cities. River changes and subsequent changes of water in space are fundamental factors that decide ancient city's life and death. Research and analysis have shown that the historical changes of Tarim River are the results of many interacted factors including regional tectonic movement and terrain features, prevailing wind and dune movement of the Tarim Basin, hydrology climate change and human activities. In the end, the paper combined with human activity discussing three possible outcomes of Tarim River and proposed future governance recommendations. Holding the view that the Tarim River will neither recover back to the state of yestoday nor appear the drying of entire watercourse, but continue to maintain the current "four water sources and one river" situation. Thus, people in the future should improve the management level of water resources in Tarim River Basin to serves well for our country's construction of silk road economic belt.
学科领域自然地理学
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.xjlas.org/handle/365004/14739
专题研究系统_荒漠环境研究室
作者单位中科院新疆生态与地理研究所
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
张永雷. 塔里木河水系变迁与古城池演变分析[D]. 北京. 中国科学院大学,2016.
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