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乌鲁木齐市居住与就业空间关系研究
英成龙
学位类型硕士
导师雷军
2016
学位授予单位中国科学院大学
学位授予地点北京
学位专业人文地理
关键词居住空间 就业空间 空间匹配关系 Gwr模型 乌鲁木齐市
摘要居住空间和就业空间是城市空间结构的两大重要组成部分,对城市建设与人民生活皆有重要影响。如果一个城市的居住空间和就业空间匹配程度较高,那么有利于降低城市居民的通勤时间和通勤距离,减轻城市的交通压力,提高居民的幸福度指数和城市的运行效率。 本文首先对国内外有关居住空间与就业空间关系的研究进行了归纳总结。在此基础上,以我国西部干旱区大城市乌鲁木齐市作为研究对象,通过收集整理人口、就业等宏观统计数据和社区调研的微观数据分析,对乌鲁木齐市城市空间结构的拓展、居住空间结构、就业空间结构及居住空间与就业空间关系等方面进行了重点分析研究。研究主要发现: (1)乌鲁木齐市居住空间结构呈现出高度集聚性,空间极化现象明显。居住空间主要沿交通走廊呈条带状发展,并呈现出双核心空间模式等特点。同时,就业空间结构也呈现出一定的空间极化特征。就业适龄人口密度和从业人员密度均呈现圈层状特点,密度由中心城区向外随距离的增加而递减,并在空间上形成了两个就业中心。城南区就业中心以新华北路街道、解放北路街道和扬子江路街道为中心;城北区就业中心以南纬路街道、中亚南路街道和中亚北路街道为中心。 (2)乌鲁木齐市各行业人口的职住空间分离程度整体较高,行业间差距较大。按行业细分居民的职住空间分离程度比总体上人口的职住空间分离程度更严重。 (3)职住空间分离是乌鲁木齐城市空间结构的突出特征,居住人口和就业人口在空间上均呈现不均衡性。就业人口密度-居住人口密度双变量局域空间分布集聚性明显高于居住人口密度-就业人口密度双变量局域空间分布集聚性。 (4)乌鲁木齐市职住空间不匹配程度较大,居住主导区的街道有35个,占街道总数的44.3%,就业主导区的街道有25个,占街道总数的31.65%,基本匹配区的街道仅有7个。 (5)居住区类型、居民的受教育程度、收入水平、住房形式和职业类型等社会经济属性对居民的职住空间分离程度均有一定影响。从居住区类型角度看,职住空间分离程度由低到高分别为机关单位型居住区、企事业单位型居住区、老城区旧居住区、新建商品房型居住区、经济适用房型居住区、公共租赁型居住区和廉租房型居住区。 (6)采用GWR模型定量分析了职住空间关系的影响因素,分析发现学历构成、保障性住房占比、二三产业人口占比、疆外流动人口占比和住房面积数是影响乌鲁木齐市职住空间关系的主要影响因素。
其他摘要Living space and employment space which are two important parts of urban spatial structure will have significant impacts on urban construction and people's lives. A city with higher matching degree of living and employment space will be helpful for reducing commuting time and commuting distance, alleviating the traffic pressure, and improving residents’ living quality. In this paper, the domestic and foreign research related to living space and employment spatial relations has carried on the induction summary. Based on this, the paper chooses Urumqi which is a big city in western China as the research object. Research data includes statistics and micro data which are come from statistical yearbooks and community research. Research contents include the expansion of urban spatial structure space, living space structure, relations among employment structure, living space and employment spatial. The main results include: (1) the residential space structure in Urumqi is highly integrated. What’s more, the spatial polarization phenomenon is obvious. The development of the living space along major transport corridors is banded. And the development pattern is the dual core space. Employment spatial structure also shows the characteristics of space polarization. The density of working-age employees and employees presents sphere shape characteristic. The density decreases with the increase of distance from central city and forms the two employment centers called Chengnan district employment center and Chengbei district employment center. The Chengnan district employment center’s centers include Xinhua road street, the Yangtze river road street and the liberation of north road street. The Chengbei district employment center’s centers include South road street and high-tech industry development zone. (2) The home-work separation phenomenon is the striking feature of urban spatial structure in Urumqi. The home-work separation degree is high in overall and the gap among all industries is large. The home-work separation degree according to the position of industry-specific is much higher than the degree according to the overall. (3)The distribution of residential and employment population shows uneven in space. The double variable local spatial agglomeration of employment-resident population density is significantly higher than the resident-working population density. (4) The matching degree between employment and living is large. There are 35, 44.3% of the total number of streets which are mainly for living. There are 25, 31.65% of the total number of streets which are mainly for working. The live as the main function of the street there are 35, 44.3%. Only 7 streets are basically matched. (5) The social and economic attributes such as residential area type, residents' education level, income level, housing form and professional type will have certain influence on the degree of home-work separation. From the perspective of the type of residential area, the degree of home-work separation from low to high are respectively agency unit residential areas, enterprises and institutions residential areas, the old residential areas in old city, the new commodity residential area, economy applicable residential areas, public rental residential areas and the low-rent housing residential areas. (6) The GWR quantitative model analyzes the factors that influencing the relationship between working and living. The results shows that the education level, the proportion of affordable housing, population proportion which is engaged in secondary and tertiary industries, the proportion of floating population and the housing area are main factors of influencing relationship between working and living space in Urumqi.
学科领域人文地理
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.xjlas.org/handle/365004/14747
专题研究系统_荒漠环境研究室
作者单位中科院新疆生态与地理研究所
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
英成龙. 乌鲁木齐市居住与就业空间关系研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院大学,2016.
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