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新疆额尔齐斯河流域典型地区灌木群落多样性及热值特征
张和钰
学位类型硕士
导师周华荣
2016
学位授予单位中国科学院大学
学位授予地点北京
学位专业环境工程
关键词额河流域 典型地区 灌木群落 群落特征 热值特征
摘要本文以额河流域典型地区灌木群落为研究对象,通过野外实地的样方调查,利用TWINSPAN分类方法对群落进行分类,对各个灌木群落的组成、区系、群落特征、群落物种多样性等方面进行分析,并对9个灌木群落热值特征进行了研究。研究成果对认识灌木植被在额河流域生态建设中的地位和作用具有重大意义,为额河流域生态恢复和环境保护提供科学依据。主要的研究结果如下: (1)被调查的植物有185种,其中灌木有44种,草本包含141种,从属于33科123属,其中以蔷薇科、菊科、藜科等西北干旱区的优势科植物居多,灌木的植物区系以北温带分布和地中海区、西亚至中亚分布为主要分布类型。 (2)应用TWINSPAN分类方法将55个方法划分为9个灌木群落类型或灌木地景观类型,分属平原和河谷灌丛、山地灌丛和平原荒漠类型。 (3)采用生态位宽度和生态位重叠公式,结合样地的实地调查对群落的基本特征进行描述得出:在不同的生境条件下灌木物种的生态位宽度存在差异,这表明各个群落内生境存在一定的空间差异性。 (4)采用多样性测定指标来描述灌木群落的物种多样性特征,分析得出:研究区灌木群落结构总体上比较简单,层次性差,群落内物种组成相对稀少、分布不均匀,灌木群落物种多样性水平偏低。 (5)分析灌木群落物种多样性与海拔变化的关系,研究结果表明:物种多样性随着海拔的升高呈单峰变化模式。 (6)本文对群落内灌木物种的热值进行测定,研究发现灌木组成物质的热值不仅受自身遗传特性和生活史特征的影响,而且受环境和群落的制约。 (7)进一步对研究区优势种灌木热值特征研究发现,其中木质化程度最高的圆叶桦热值最高;科间热值存在差异,柏科、蔷薇科和豆科的热值均高于藜科和 蓼科;立地条件的不同,植物热值会出现变化,研究发现分布在山地的优势种灌木比分布在河岸低地和荒漠的热值高。通过对不同种灌木器官的热值对比发现,植物体器官热值之间也存在着差异,其中根的热值最低,但是不同灌木物种热值器官存在的差异不一样。最后初步探讨了热值与群落多样性的相关关系,研究发现热值与多样性指数、均匀度指数和丰富度指数呈正关关系,与优势度指数呈负相关关系,但是热值与这些指数相关性显著性差。
其他摘要In this paper, the research object was shrub community in typical areas of the Xinjiang Trtysh River Watershed. According to the quadrat inverstigation and TWINSPAN classification, we characterized the communitie with the species composion, floral feature, ecological niches and species diversity. Calorificvalue of 9 shrub communities was measured. This research has an important scientific guiding significance in understanding the status and role of Shrub vegetation in the ecological construction in the Irtysh River Watershed , and provides scientific basis for ecological restoration and rehabilitation . The main study conclusion are as follows: (1)A total of 185 species were identified, including 44 shrub species and 141 herb species, belonging to123 genera and 31families. Most of plants belonged to Rosaceae, Compositae and Chenopodiaceae, which are the dominant families in arid regions of northwest China. The flora of shrub species was dominated by the North temperate, the ancient Mediterranean and West Asia to Central Asia components. (2)Using the TWINSPAN methd, shrub communties in the 55plots could be divided into 9 types of shrub communities or shrub landscape, including plain and valley shrub, montane scrub and plain desert type. (3) The basic characteristics of the shrub community were studied, with using the niche breadth and niche overlap formula and combining the field survey of the sample plots. The results show that the niche breadth of shrub species varies in different habitats, and environment and resources had high spatial heterogenetity in different shrub communities. (4)By analysing the shrub community species diversity of species diversity index, evenness index ,dominance index and richness index, the results indicated that the structure of shrub community was simple, the speciesnumber of were few,and the shrub community diversity level was low. (5)The species diversity of the shrub community is analyzed along altitude gradient.With the increase of the altitude, the Shannon diversity index, Pielou evenness index and species richness index showed a single peak distribution pattern. (6)The Calorificvalue of species in shrub community were determinted. The Calorificvalue of shrubs was affected not only by their genetic characterstic and life history, which had biological, but aslo subject to environmental constraints and restricted by the community, which had ecological attributes. (7)Further research on Calorificvalue characteristics of dominant shrub species show that the highest degree of lignification Betula rotundifolia Spach has the highest calorific value; There are differences in calorific value between families. The calorific value of Cupressaceae, Rosaceae and Leguminosae were higher than that of Chenopodiaceae and Polygonaceae;The calorific value of the plant will change with site conditions. The dominant species of shrub in the mountainous region is higher than that of the riparian lowland and desert. By comparing the calorific value of different kinds of shrub organs, there were differences in the Calorificvalue of plant organs. The heat value of the root was the lowest.At last ,we found that calorific value was positively correlated with species diversity index, richness index and evenness index, and negatively correlated with dominance index, but not significantly.
学科领域环境工程
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.xjlas.org/handle/365004/14751
专题研究系统_荒漠环境研究室
作者单位中科院新疆生态与地理研究所
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
张和钰. 新疆额尔齐斯河流域典型地区灌木群落多样性及热值特征[D]. 北京. 中国科学院大学,2016.
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