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新疆额尔齐斯河流域典型灌木群落与土壤环境因子的关系
温彬
学位类型硕士
导师周华荣
2016
学位授予单位中国科学院大学
学位授予地点北京
学位专业环境工程
关键词新疆额尔齐斯河 空间分布 灌木群落 土壤环境因子
摘要新疆额尔齐斯河源于阿尔泰山脉,是中国唯一的北冰洋水系的河流,该流域所在地属温带干旱区,热量较少,气候温凉,平原降水少,山区降水丰富,植被类型丰富多样,形成乔、灌、草混生结构。植被稀疏,生长白茎绢蒿、纤细绢蒿、铃铛刺等荒漠灌木。本文以新疆额尔齐斯河流域典型的灌木植被为研究对象,在进行样地调查和灌木分类的基础上,结合土壤空间变异理论与排序的方法,对影响灌木群落分布的主要土壤环境因子进行分析,研究成果基本阐明灌木群落土壤属性的空间的分布及影响灌木群落分布的主要环境因子,对新疆额尔齐斯河流域土地利用和植被演替提供科学依据。 1)土壤含水量的半方差函数分析表明0-20cm处的土壤含水量符合高斯模型,20-40cm符合球状模型,40-60cm符合线性模型。土壤含水量空间插值反映了研究区含水量较高的区域是海拔在1200-2100m喀纳斯中高山地段,含水量较少的地区是新疆额河中部平原荒漠地区。 2)土壤养分的半方差函数分析表明,土壤有效碳、有机质、全氮符合高斯模型,有效钾符合线性模型,有效氮符合球状模型。有机质、土壤全氮、有效氮、有效磷、速效钾含量分布较高区域是海拔较高的喀纳斯地区中高山地段,含量较低的地区是新疆额河中部平原荒漠地带。 3)土壤盐分的半方差函数分析表明:总盐、Mg2+、Ca2+、Cl-、Na+、SO42-符合线性模型,HCO3-符合高斯模型。土壤总盐及各离子含量的分布区域基本相同:分布较高地区为两河交汇处河谷平原及新疆额河的中部平原荒漠地区,分布较少的区域为喀纳斯地区和可可托海地区中高山地段。 4)新疆额尔齐斯河流域主要分布9个灌木群落,这9个灌木群落土壤元素在土壤剖面纵向分布规律:土壤有机质纵向变化规律大体上随土壤深度的增加而减少,不同群落间差异显著;土壤全钾与速效钾在纵向分布中呈现出相反的变化规律,土壤全钾随土壤深度的增加而减少,土壤速效钾随土壤深度的增加而增加,不同灌木群落中差异不显著;土壤全磷与土壤有效磷在纵向分布中表现出随土壤深度的增加而增加;土壤含盐量在各群落间含量差异显著,区域间差异较大。 5)除趋势典范对应分析(Detrended Canonical Correspondence Analysis,DCCA)结果表明前两个排序轴的特征值分别为0.96,0.79,第1轴的贡献率为15.9,第二轴的累积贡献率为12.6%。第一轴基本上反映了各个灌木群落与土壤环境中总盐、全钾梯度变化,其中总盐是最重要的变化梯度;第2轴基本上表现出植物群落所在环境土壤含水量和海拔的变化趋势。因此,土壤总盐含量和土壤含水量的变化是对新疆额尔齐斯河流域灌木植被分布起决定性作用的非生物环境因子。
其他摘要Irtysh River takes its rise among the Altai Mountains, and is the only river of the arctic ocean water system in China. The location of Irtysh River is a temperate arid district, with less heat, cool weather, less rainfall in plains, abundant precipitation in mountainous areas, which helps to form a rich community of vegetation types including tree, shrub, grass and its mixed floras. But the shrub vegetation distribution is sparse,and mainly includes White silk stem pole, hin silk pole, bells and other desert thorn bushes.In this study, typical shrub vegetation in Irtysh River was investigated. based on the classification of shrub communities and by using the variability andquantity sorting theory of soil, the major environmental factors which affect shrub community diversity and distribution patterns were analyzed. The results expounds the basic spatial distribution pattern of the soil properties of the Shrub communities and its main environmental factors of the Irtysh River basin in xinjiang, which will Provide a scientific basis for the study of Land use type and vegetation succession of this area. 1)The semi variance function analysis of the soil water content shows that the soil water content of 0-20cm is in line with the Gauss model, 20-40cm is in accordance with the spHerical model, and 40-60cm is in line with the linear model. Spatial interpolation of soil water content reflects that the high water content area is located at the mountain area of Kanas with the elevation of 1200-2100m. The lower water content area is in the middle part of Irtysh River among the Plain Desert area. 2)Semi variance analysis of soil nutrient shows that soil available carbon, organic matter and total nitrogen is in line with the Gauss model, available potassium is in accordance with the linear model, the effective nitrogen is in accordance with the spHerical model. The high content area of organic matter, soil total nitrogen, available nitrogen, available pHospHorus, available potassium is in the high mountain area of Kanas, the low content area is in the middle part of Irtysh River among the Plain Desert area. 3)The semi variance function analysis of soil salinity showed that the total salt, Mg2+, Ca2+ and Cl- are in line with the linear model, K+ and HCO3- are in accord with the Gauss model, and SO42- and Na+ are in accordance with the spHerical model. The regional distribution of soil total salt and the ion content is essentially the same: the high distribution area is among the valley plain where the two rivers meet, and the middle part of Irtysh River among the Plain Desert area. The low distribution area is among the medium high mountain area of Kanas and Keketuohai. 4)There are mainly nine shrub communities among the Irtysh river basin, The longitudinal variation of soil nutrition element of the nine shrub communities are: soil organic matter increases with the increase of soil depth generally and difference between different communities is significant. Soil total potassium and available potassium showed the opposite change in the vertical distribution, which decreases with the increase of soil depth. soil available potassium increases with the increase of soil depth, but the difference between different communities is not significant. Soil total pHospHorus and available pHospHorus increase with the increase of soil depth. the soil salt content differs significantly between different communities and different area. 5)Detrended Canonical Correspondence Analysis(DCCA)analysis showed eigenvalues of the first two ordination axes were 0.96,0.79.contribution of the first is axe 15.9%, cumulative contribution rate of the second axe is 12.6%.The first ax reflects the gradient variance of total salt and total potassium of different shrub communities and soil environment, among which total salt is the most important changing gradient.The second axis substantially exhibits the variation tendency of soil moisture content and elevation of different vegetation communities. Thus, changes in the total salt content and soil water content are the abiotic environmental factors that determine the distribution of the shrub vegetation among Irtysh River Basin.
学科领域环境工程
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.xjlas.org/handle/365004/14752
专题研究系统_荒漠环境研究室
作者单位中科院新疆生态与地理研究所
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
温彬. 新疆额尔齐斯河流域典型灌木群落与土壤环境因子的关系[D]. 北京. 中国科学院大学,2016.
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