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新疆天山北坡经济带水源水消毒副产物形成潜力研究
王庆君
学位类型硕士
导师梁岩
2016
学位授予单位中国科学院大学
学位授予地点北京
学位专业环境科学
关键词消毒副产物 水源水 新疆 溶解性有机物
摘要天山北坡经济带地区是新疆最重要的经济园区。然而近年来由于频繁的人类活动,水质逐渐恶化,有机污染日益严重,消毒副产物问题值得关注。本研究以新疆天山北坡经济带地区重要水源地地表水为研究对象,分冬夏两季采集水样,选取广东冬季珠三角地区地表水为对照,分析在氯化和氯氨化两种消毒方式下三卤甲烷(THMs),卤乙酸(HAAs),卤代硝基甲烷(HNMs),卤乙腈(HANs),卤代酮(HKs)等DBPs的形成特征,探索在这两种消毒方式下环境因子对DBPs形成的影响,并通过SPSS数据分析,在置信区间建立环境因子与上述五类DBPs的关系模型。结果如下: 1 新疆和广东水样中DOC及氯化DBPs含量与不同的环境因子有关,新疆冬季和夏季中DOC和氯化DBPs含量与总磷、总氮及氨氮等有关,夏季DOC对TOC与UV254的贡献显著,而UV254对TOC的贡献不明确,同时叶绿素对DOC或TOC的贡献也不明确;相对而言,冬季TOC中UV254的贡献显著,同时叶绿素对UV254有一定贡献,提示新疆水样的DOC及氯化DBPs主要与营养元素有关,特别是夏季温度高、光照强、降雨量大及冰川融化的时候,水中有机质多来自于外源有机质,总磷含量决定藻类生物量,但藻有机质不能明确指示水有机质含量。相反,冬季温度低降水量极少时,水源中藻类生物量对有机质有一定指示作用,同时芳香族有机质是总有机质重要组成,而有机质的含量与氨氮或硝酸盐含量相关。而广东水样中DOC与叶绿素含量有关,氯化总DBPs也是与DOC和叶绿素有关,提示藻类或水体富营养对DOC或DBPs的产生具有较大影响作用,这也与本地区的地理环境及工业化发达程度相吻合。 2 新疆地区不同季节事宜采用不同消毒方法。氯化和氯胺化消毒对水体DBPs含量影响较大,对于新疆地区,冬季可以采用氯胺法消毒,而夏季可以采用氯化消毒。总体比较氯化和氯胺化生成DBPs结果显示,两种消毒方式在形成DBPs的回归模型上的区别不明显。DBPs的生成与源水中有机质含量具显著的相关性。新疆夏季水样的氯化DBPs的形成与DOC关系显著,而冬季UV254的贡献更加显著。新疆广东两地的相比,新疆氯化DBPs的生成与芳香族有机质更加相关,而广东氯化或氯胺化DBPs与DOC关系显著。 3 在显著性水平较高条件下建立的回归模型可以作为将来饮用水水务工作者控制消毒副产物产生的重要依据,尤其是新疆地区,水体的富营养化程度较低,这对于DBPs的控制是一个有利的因素,虽然新疆水质的pH普遍偏高,可以达到7.5至8.0以上,但是通过回归模型可以看出,pH对DBPs产生量作用并不明显。直接影响DBPs产生量的因素主要还是水体中溶解性有机物的含量水平,因此,为降低DBPs产生量需要控制人为污水的排放,降低水体有机质含量。
其他摘要The Economic Belt on the North Slope of the Tianshan Mountain is the most economic area of Xinjiang. However, due to frequent human activities, water pollution and organic pollution are increasingly worsening. Disinfection of drinking water is a key problem to be concerned. This study focused on surface water of important water sources on the Economic Belt on the Northern Slope of Xinjiang, with Guangdong Province as a comparison. Disinfection byproducts (DBPs) via chlorination or chloramination including trihalomethanes (THMs), haloacetic acids (HAAs), halogenated nitromethane (HNMs), haloacetonitriles (HANs) and haloketones (HKs) were determined. Statistical analyses were conducted using SPSS in order to investigate DBPs formation in the two disinfection processes and the above-mentioned environmental factors within confidence intervals. The results are listed below. 1 DOC and chlorination DBPs in Xinjiang and Guangdong waters are related to different environmental factors. In dry and summers in Xinjiang, DOC and chlorination DBPs have correlations with total phosphorus, total nitrogen and ammonia nitrogen. In summer, DOC is a significant contributor to TOC and UV254, but the contribution of neither UV254 to TOC nor chlorophyll to DOC or TOC is clear. In winter, UV254 contributes a lot to TOC, meanwhile chlorophyll has some contribution to UV254, which implies that DOC and DBPs are mainly related to nutritious elements in Xinjiang, especially in the summer of high temperature and more sunlight and rainfall and/or glacier melt water. Organic matters in water is generally eXogenous. Total phosphorus determines the quantity of algal organic matters, which cannot indicates the total organic matters in water in summer. Contrarily, it shows to a certain eXtend of indication when in winter the rainfall is eXtremely scarce. Aromatic organic matters is an important part of the total organic matters, which relates to ammonium or nitrate concentration level. In Guangdong water samples, DOC is related to chlorophyll amount, and chlorination total DBPs is also related to DOC and chlorophylls. This implies algae or water eutrophication has a great impact on DOC or DBPs formation that coincides with the weather and the developed industry in this area. 2 Results of comparing between dry and summers of Xinjiang showed that different disinfection methods could be adopted in water treatment in different seasons, due to sources and levels of DOC and the DBPs formation. In winter, chloramination could be applied, while chlorination in summer. In general, the two disinfection processes have no difference in the regression model of DBPs formation. DBPs formation has a significant relationship with organic matter level in the source water. For DBPs of the chlorination process in Xinjiang, the formation is more related to DOC in summer, while more related to UV254 in winter. Comparing Xinjiang and Guangdong, the DBPs formation via chlorination is more correlated to aromatic organic matters in Xinjiang, while in Guangdong significantly related to DOC for both disinfection methods. 3 The regression model built on significant level can work as an important reference for future water authorities to control the DBPs formation. For Xinjiang, the low eutrophication level of waters is beneficial. Although the pH levels of Xinjiang surface waters are generally as high as 8.5 to above 9.0, there is no significant effect of pH on DBPs formation as reflected in the regression model. The direct contributor of DBPs formation is the DOC level in water, therefore, artificial wastewater drainage needs to be controlled in order to decrease the organic matter level in waters.
学科领域环境科学
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.xjlas.org/handle/365004/14756
专题研究系统_荒漠环境研究室
作者单位中科院新疆生态与地理研究所
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
王庆君. 新疆天山北坡经济带水源水消毒副产物形成潜力研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院大学,2016.
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