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新疆天山高山秃鹫(Gyps himalayensis)巢址选择研究
Thesis Advisor马鸣
Degree Grantor中国科学院大学
Place of Conferral北京
Degree Discipline生态学
Keyword高山兀鹫 分布 种群动态 巢址选择 繁殖生态 保护对策 天山 新疆
Abstract于2014年9 ~ 12月,2015年1 ~ 12月,分别采用文献搜集法、样线调查法、直接计数法、焦点观测法、瞬时扫描取样法、自动相机拍摄法和访问调查法,对新疆天山高山兀鹫(Gyps himalayensis)的种群分布、数量动态、巢址选择、繁殖生态、生存现状等开展调查研究,并介绍了世界及国内鹫类相关信息。主要结果如下: (1) 高山兀鹫分布与种群动态 鹫类在全球有23种,分为旧大陆鹫和新大陆鹫(美洲鹫),分别占16种和7种。鹫类研究近年发展快,特别是从上世纪90年代以后开始。其中又以美国、西班牙、意大利等国家居多。中国鹫类虽然占了8种,但研究处于相对滞后地步。目前,世界鹫类种群数量,总体上处于下降的地步,不容乐观。 高山兀鹫分布于中亚至喜马拉雅山地区。在国内主要分布于西部地区,中东部有零星记录。在新疆,各大山系都有分布。数量变化方面,主要集中在5 ~ 10月,总体数量不多。 (2) 高山兀鹫巢址选择 高山兀鹫的巢多分布于悬崖峭壁凹陷处,坡度多在70°以上,海拔在2000 m以上。巢以细草为主进行铺垫,较少量树枝条。巢内径35 ~ 60 cm,外径100 ~ 320 cm,窝中央凹深7 ~ 15 cm。 高山兀鹫有集群营巢的习性和相对固定的繁殖定居点。7个地点13个巢区中,每个地点有巢60 ~ 110个不等,平均每个巢区繁殖对在5 ~ 16窝之间。多数喜欢在向阳的南坡营巢,统计112个巢穴计有88个朝南,约占78.6%。营巢位置倾向于选择远离人类干扰,接近水源地的地方。 (3) 繁殖生态研究 高山兀鹫繁殖周期漫长,繁殖期可从12月至翌年10月份,是国内育雏期最长的鸟类,繁殖期跨度9 ~ 11个月。产卵1枚,卵壳白色。亲鸟护幼强度随着幼雏成长逐渐减弱,喂食次数也在逐渐减少。 对高山兀鹫繁殖期行为谱进行划分,共7类16种,分别为交配、筑巢、休息、警戒、保养、运动、其他。对7大类行为进行百分比统计,休息行为最高(19.5%),其次是筑巢、警戒、保养等行为。 对高山兀鹫交配行为进行划分,划分为三个阶段:交配前(邀配)、交配中(踩背、射精)、交配后。交配过程持续了8 ~ 15 s。共记录到135次(张)交配行为,在13:00 ~ 14:00时达到高峰。交配期的气温变化与交配次数同期达到高峰。 共记录到403次(张)筑巢行为,雌雄双方共同参与。筑巢行为在一天存在三个高峰期,分别为11:00 ~ 12:00时、13:00 ~ 14:00时和15:00 ~ 16:00时三个时间段,13:00 ~ 14:00时达到一天的最高峰。 (4) 生存现状和保护对策 当前,高山兀鹫种群状况不容乐观。受到来自多方因素的威胁:栖息地破坏、食物短缺、药物中毒、电网威胁、重金属污染、偷猎与贩卖、标本制作等。对此,因积极采取一些防范措施,包括开展鹫类资源普查;建立鹫类研究保护监测网络;完善鹫类保护法规与级别;打击各种捕杀、贩卖鹫类行为;加强宣传,增加民众保护意识;加强国际交流,共同实施国际保护行动。
Other AbstractAs one of the scavengers of Old World vultures, the Himalayan vulture (Gyps himalayensis) is an almost endemic species to China and it is known as the holy eagle for the celestial burial of Tibetan people. A lack of baseline knowledge about the species hinders the formulation of appropriate, essential conservation measures. As a consequence, we conducted the surveys on distribution, population size, population fluctuation, behavior character, breeding ecology and conservation strategy during September to December of 2014 and January to December of 2015. We also introduced the information of world vultures in this paper. The results showed that: (1) Overview of vultures and distribution, population fluctuation of Himalayan vulture There are 23 vultures around the world and divided into Old World vultures (16 species) and New World vultures (7 species). The research about vultures development fast in recent years, especially since the 1990s. United States, Spain, Italy run the fast among it. Although eight vultures distributed in China, but research is lagging behind. At present, the population size of world vultures is in decline and not optimistic. Himalayan vulture inhabits mountainous areas from western China, east through the Himalayan mountain range to central China and Mongolia. All of mountains in Xinjiang have vultures distribute. The population fluctuation mainly concentrated on May to October, but the total number of Himalayan vulture not very much. (2) Nest-site selection of Himalayan vulture Himalayan vulture tended to use the same roosting sites and slope above 70°. The altitude of nests about 2000 m or more. Nest materials were consisted of mainly fine reeds and that was rather different from that of other raptors. Outer diameter measured 90~320 cm, inner diameter 35~60 cm, centre depression 7~15 cm deep. Himalayan griffon have a cluster of nesting habits and breeding in the relatively fixed between 5 to 16 nests. Every place has a nest ranged from 60 to 110. Most nests (78.6 %) were located on south-facing slopes. Typically, Nesting position tend to far away from human interference, close to the water source place. (3) Breeding ecology of Himalayan vulture The breeding cycle of Himalayan vulture is long. Every year breeding times was carried out in December to the following October. One eggs were laid every years and white color. The strength protection for the young by parent as the chicks grow up gradually weakened. As many as 16 behaviors under 7 categories were described and defined during the breeding period, including mating, nesting, resting, alerting, maintain, locomotion and some other behaviors. The frequency of resting was the highest in all behaviors. The mating behavior was divided into three stages and occurred at any time from 8:00 to 16:00 except for 9:00 to 10:00, and it reached the peak at the time from 13:00~14:00, with temperature also being the daily summit. The process of mating behavior lasted 8 ~ 15 s. During the nesting period, 403 times nesting behavior were recorded. Nesting material was brought both by males and females. The peaks of nest building behavior occurred at 11:00~12:00, 13:00~14:00 and 15:00~16:00 with each peak followed by a short trough. (4) Survival status and Conservation strategy At present, the population situation of Himalayan vulture is not optimistic. Such as over grazing, rat and marmot poisoning, highway construction, extensive mining, poaching and egg collecting were badly affected and the population of large vultures has declined sharply. We suggest some urgent conservation measures to ensure the population of this endangered scavenger species living sustainably on the plateau.
Subject Area生态学
Document Type学位论文
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
徐国华. 新疆天山高山秃鹫(Gyps himalayensis)巢址选择研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院大学,2016.
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