|其他摘要||As one of the scavengers of Old World vultures, the Himalayan vulture (Gyps himalayensis) is an almost endemic species to China and it is known as the holy eagle for the celestial burial of Tibetan people. A lack of baseline knowledge about the species hinders the formulation of appropriate, essential conservation measures. As a consequence, we conducted the surveys on distribution, population size, population fluctuation, behavior character, breeding ecology and conservation strategy during September to December of 2014 and January to December of 2015. We also introduced the information of world vultures in this paper. The results showed that:
(1) Overview of vultures and distribution, population fluctuation of Himalayan vulture
There are 23 vultures around the world and divided into Old World vultures (16 species) and New World vultures (7 species). The research about vultures development fast in recent years, especially since the 1990s. United States, Spain, Italy run the fast among it. Although eight vultures distributed in China, but research is lagging behind. At present, the population size of world vultures is in decline and not optimistic.
Himalayan vulture inhabits mountainous areas from western China, east through the Himalayan mountain range to central China and Mongolia. All of mountains in Xinjiang have vultures distribute. The population fluctuation mainly concentrated on May to October, but the total number of Himalayan vulture not very much.
(2) Nest-site selection of Himalayan vulture
Himalayan vulture tended to use the same roosting sites and slope above 70°. The altitude of nests about 2000 m or more. Nest materials were consisted of mainly fine reeds and that was rather different from that of other raptors. Outer diameter measured 90~320 cm, inner diameter 35~60 cm, centre depression 7~15 cm deep.
Himalayan griffon have a cluster of nesting habits and breeding in the relatively fixed between 5 to 16 nests. Every place has a nest ranged from 60 to 110. Most nests (78.6 %) were located on south-facing slopes. Typically, Nesting position tend to far away from human interference, close to the water source place.
(3) Breeding ecology of Himalayan vulture
The breeding cycle of Himalayan vulture is long. Every year breeding times was carried out in December to the following October. One eggs were laid every years and white color. The strength protection for the young by parent as the chicks grow up gradually weakened.
As many as 16 behaviors under 7 categories were described and defined during the breeding period, including mating, nesting, resting, alerting, maintain, locomotion and some other behaviors. The frequency of resting was the highest in all behaviors.
The mating behavior was divided into three stages and occurred at any time from 8:00 to 16:00 except for 9:00 to 10:00, and it reached the peak at the time from 13:00~14:00, with temperature also being the daily summit. The process of mating behavior lasted 8 ~ 15 s.
During the nesting period, 403 times nesting behavior were recorded. Nesting material was brought both by males and females. The peaks of nest building behavior occurred at 11:00~12:00, 13:00~14:00 and 15:00~16:00 with each peak followed by a short trough.
(4) Survival status and Conservation strategy
At present, the population situation of Himalayan vulture is not optimistic. Such as over grazing, rat and marmot poisoning, highway construction, extensive mining, poaching and egg collecting were badly affected and the population of large vultures has declined sharply. We suggest some urgent conservation measures to ensure the population of this endangered scavenger species living sustainably on the plateau.|