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新疆五种藜科盐生植物饲用价值评价及其青贮利用
李梅梅
学位类型硕士
导师田长彦
2016
学位授予单位中国科学院大学
学位授予地点北京
学位专业生物工程
关键词盐生植物 野榆钱菠菜 盐地碱蓬 红叶藜 盐角草
摘要新疆作为我国畜牧大省,发展畜牧业需要大量饲草料,但因土壤盐渍化等问题导致草场面积逐渐缩减,草畜矛盾日益突出。而新疆的野生盐生植物种质资源非常丰富,现已查明的有300余种,这些植物不仅能在盐碱地上正常生长繁殖,一些植物还是野生食草动物的饲料来源,如将这些植物开发为家畜的饲草料,不仅有利于促进当地的畜牧业发展,还能带动大面积的盐碱地和咸水微咸水的开发利用,并促进盐碱地的生物改良。 为了研究新疆盐碱荒地人工栽培的五种藜科一年生盐生植物:红叶藜(Chenopodium rubrum)、野榆钱菠菜(Atriplex aucheri)、盐地碱蓬(Suaeda salsa)、盐角草(Salicornia europaea)和高碱蓬(Suaeda altissima)的最佳刈割时期和相对饲用价值大小,于2015年7-9月对其三个不同生育时期(营养期、初花期和结实期)的常规营养成分、矿质营养、抗营养因子(次生化合物和重金属)含量进行了测定分析,并对其利用方式-混合青贮调制技术进行了探索。 结果表明,随着生长时期的推进,几种植物的生物量不断增加,水分含量逐渐降低,粗蛋白含量初花期(现蕾至初花期)最高,无氮浸出物含量不断降低,粗灰分略有下降,粗纤维含量不断升高,草酸盐含量初花期最低,即五种植物在初花期的产草量、营养价值和消化率都相对较高,因此建议在初花期进行开发利用。 在初花期与苜蓿相比,红叶藜的粗蛋白和无氮浸出物等易消化吸收养分含量最高,而盐分和粗纤维含量较低,营养价值较高;野榆钱菠菜因粗纤维含量高于红叶藜,因此饲用价值稍低于红叶藜,盐地碱蓬和盐角草营养成长期长,粗纤维含量低,但盐分含量太高,降低其饲用品质,高碱蓬限制其饲用品质的主要因素是茎木质化程度高,茎叶比高,消化率较低。因此五种植物相对饲用价值大小依次为:红叶藜>野榆钱菠菜>盐地碱蓬>高碱蓬>盐角草。 盐生植物限制饲用利用的主要因素是盐分含量高,植物草酸盐含量超标,因此不适合长期单一饲喂动物,需要与其它饲料搭配混合饲喂,提高盐生植物适口性和养分利用效率的有效途径是将盐生植物与其它成分等调制成混合青贮饲料。
其他摘要Xinjiang Province as a big province of animal husbandry in China, the develop-ment of stockbreeding needs a lot of forage, but due to soil salinization, the area of grassland is reduced gradually, as a result, the conflict between forage and livestock have become increasingly prominent. The germplasm resources of Xinjiang’s halo-phytic plants are very rich, with more than 300 kinds have been identified. Those plants can normally grow and reproduce on saline-alkali soil, some of them are also wild animals’ feedstock source, develop those plants into forge will not only benefit for local stockbreeding, but also lead to the development and utilization of large areas of saline alkali land and brackish water, the ecological effect is biological improvement of saline alkali land. The study aimed to study the suitable harvest time and evaluate the feeding value of five cultivated Chenopod annual halophytic forage grasses (Chenopodium rubrum; Atriplex aucheri; Suaeda salsa; Salicornia europaea; Suaeda altissima) which sampled from Xinjiang saline-alkali soil. Plants samples were analyzed for nutritional component contents, mineral elements, second compounds and heavy mental in three different growth periods: nutrient, bloom and fruit period in July to September of 2015. The mixed silage modulation technology of the five species of halophytic forage was explored based on their nutritive value. The results showed that the five kinds of halophytes’ yield increased continu-ously with the advance of the growth period, water contents dropped gradually, crude protein contents increased before bloom and then drop, nitrogen free extract contents dropped gradually, crude ash decreased slightly, crude fiber contents rose continuous-ly, oxalates contents were lowest in early bloom period. In conclusion, those plants should be exploited and utilized in early flowering stage. Compared with alfalfa in blooming period, C. rubrum high in crude protein and nitrogen free extract, ranks the highest in nutritive value accordingly, A. aucheri have higher crude fiber contents and lower feeding value than C. rubrum, S. salsa and S. europaea could be nutritional for a long period and low in crude fiber contents. But high in soluble mineral contents which decreased its forage quality, the main factors that limit S. altissima’ feeding value are its lignin stem, high stem-leaf ratio and hard to digestive, thus its feeding value was the lowest. Considering about their secondary compounds which have a positive or negative effects on fodder’ feeding value, C. rubrum, A. aucheri and S. altissima were rich in betaines, at about 7%. The oxalate contents of S. europaea, C. rubrum and A. aucheri exceeded safety concentration. The main factor that limit halophytes for forage utilization is the high salt content, oxalate contents also exceeded the toxic level, therefore, they are not suitable be a single feedstock resource for a long-period, need to be mixed with other fodders. The best way to improve halophytes’ palatability and digestibility is ensiling halophytic plants with other feed ingredients (corn, sorghum) by which can effectively conserve halophytic plants’ nutritive components(vitamins, glycine betaine) and improve their feeding value.
学科领域生物工程
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.xjlas.org/handle/365004/14759
专题研究系统_荒漠环境研究室
作者单位中科院新疆生态与地理研究所
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
李梅梅. 新疆五种藜科盐生植物饲用价值评价及其青贮利用[D]. 北京. 中国科学院大学,2016.
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