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盐生植物生长发育与土壤盐分的关系及其对盐渍土的改良研究
王旭
学位类型硕士
导师田长彦
2016
学位授予单位中国科学院大学
学位授予地点北京
学位专业环境科学
关键词盐渍化土壤 盐地碱蓬 盐角草 混合盐胁迫 土壤脱盐
摘要土壤盐渍化是制约农业生产的主要障碍因素之一。新疆盐渍化耕地占到耕地面积的32%左右,土壤次生盐渍化也日趋严重。新疆土壤盐渍化类型多样,主要由NaCl、Na2SO4和NaHCO3复合盐组成。NaCl和Na2SO4等中性盐对植物造成的危害主要有渗透胁迫和离子毒害。NaHCO3和Na2CO3等碱性盐对植物造成的碱胁迫危害程度高于盐胁迫。研究盐生植物在混合盐碱胁迫下的生长发育状况对其在新疆盐碱地的改良利用具有重大意义。利用盐生植物改良重盐碱地需要一个相对长期的过程,在这个过程中土壤盐分含量逐渐下降,盐生植物的生长发育和植株含盐量会受到影响,盐生植物的移盐能力可能会受到影响。本文的研究内容分为两个部分,第一部分以盐角草和盐地碱蓬两种典型的盐生植物作为研究对象,采用土培盆栽试验,将中性盐NaCl和Na2SO4和碱性盐NaHCO3和Na2CO3按照不同比例混合,模拟不同盐度和类型的盐渍土,研究了这两种盐生植物在不同土壤盐分下的生长发育与积盐状况;第二部分以大田种植的盐地碱蓬作为研究材料,采用大田试验,研究了盐地碱蓬种植对重盐碱地的改良情况及种植年限对盐地碱蓬移盐能力的影响。主要结果如下: (1)盐地碱蓬和盐角草为真盐生植物有较高的耐盐能力。在中低碱胁迫下,盐地碱蓬和盐角草在绝大部分盐度处理下都能存活,最高盐度可达5.5%,表明盐地碱蓬和盐角草具有一定的耐碱和耐盐性。 (2)低盐度处理处理促进盐地碱蓬和盐角草的生长发育,主要表现在低盐度处理下盐地碱蓬和盐角草地上部干物质量、株高、分枝数显著增加;高盐度处理抑制盐地碱蓬和盐角草的生长发育,盐地碱蓬和盐角草地上部干物质量、株高、分枝数均随盐度的增加而下降;盐地碱蓬和盐角草地上部灰分盐含量随盐度的增加而增加;在不同类型盐分处理下,2种盐生植物的灰分盐积累量均随着盐度的增加呈现出先升高后下降的趋势,在低盐度下盐地碱蓬的灰分盐积累量表现为Cl-型处理>SO42-—Cl-型处理>Cl-—SO42-型处理>SO42-型处理,在中高盐度下,盐地碱蓬灰分盐积累量表现为SO42-—Cl-型处理>Cl-—SO42-型处理>SO42->Cl-型处理,在低盐度下盐角草灰分盐积累量表现为Cl-—SO42-型处理>SO42-型处理>Cl-型处理>SO42-—Cl-型处理,在中高盐度下盐角草灰分盐积累量与盐地碱蓬类似。在双因素方差分析的结果表明,土壤盐度、处理组(碱性盐比例)及二者的交互效应对两种植物的地上部干生物量、株高、分枝数、叶绿素含量、地上部灰分盐含量和灰分盐积累量都有极显著的影响,土壤盐度是两种盐生植物生长发育与盐分积累的主导性因素。 (3)不同种植年限盐地碱蓬的株高、茎粗、单位面积鲜重、单位面积干重和肉质化程度差异显著,盐地碱蓬的株高、茎粗、单位面积鲜重和单位面积干重大体上有随种植年限增加而增加的趋势,肉质化程度的变化趋势则正好相反。盐地碱蓬不同生育期(幼苗期、成年期和开花结实期)地上部盐分含量和主要离子含量表现为种植1年>种植2年>种植3年,而且不同种植年限盐地碱蓬幼苗期的盐分含量和主要离子含量显著高于成年期和开花结实期。盐地碱蓬移盐能力由开花结实期的地上部生物量和盐分含量共同决定,不同种植年限盐地碱蓬移盐能力没有明显差异,盐地碱蓬在人工种植条件下应用于改良重盐碱地时有相对稳定的移盐能力。 (4)在重盐碱地种植盐地碱蓬后,盐分在土壤剖面的分布发生明显变化,由盐荒地的表聚型分布转变为底积型分布,表层土壤(0~40cm)盐分含量快速下降从未种植的45.57g/kg下降到3年后的20.18g/kg,中下层(40~120cm)盐分含量则由未种植的25.71g/kg上升为28.09g/kg。不同盐分离子在土壤剖面的分布差异明显,Na+和Cl-因容易被水淋洗和植物选择性吸收多,根区土壤中Na+和Cl-含量随种植年限增加有显著降低,Ca2+和SO42-不易随水移动,淋洗程度低,HCO3-和Mg2+第二年和第三年的淋洗效果明显好于第一年;经过3年种植后土壤中毒害离子Na+与Cl-和在表层盐分组成中的比例下降,Ca2+比例上升,SAR值显著降低。
其他摘要Salinization of soil is one of the main contravariants that restricts the agriculture production. Soil salinization threats over 32% of the arable land in Xinjiang, and the second soil salinization becomes more and more serious. The type of salinized soil is various, which are mainly composed by NaCl, Na2SO4 and NaHCO3. Neutral salts (NaCl and Na2SO4) influence plant growth and development through osmotic stress and ion toxic. Alkaline stress caused by alkaline salts (NaHCO3 and Na2CO3) damage to plant much lager than salt stress. The effects of salt-alkali mix stress on the growth of halophytes were studied, and it’s of great significance for improving saline soil by planting halophytes. Improving heavy saline soil by planting halophytes is a long process and the soil salt content gradually decreases in this process. The salt accumulation of halophytes will change with the soil salt content change. In this paper, two parts are mainly focused on. In the first study,the effect of salt-alkali mix stress on the growth of two typical halophytes(S. salsa and S. europaea ) were studied based on pot soil experiment. In the second study, the changes of salt accumulation of S. salsa in different planting years were studied based on field experiment. The main results were shown as follows: (1) Because S. salsa and S. europaea are salt-dilution halophytes so they have high salt tolerance. S. Salsa was capable of surviving in all levels of salinity in most of salt treatments, and the highest soil salt content was 5.5%.In D group of salt S. Salsa also was survived in all levels of salinity expect 5.5%. (2) With the increasing of soil salt content, the dry matter yield of S. salsa and S. Europaea presented earlier increase and later decrease trend in all types of salt. Low soil salt content treatments increased dry matter yield of S. salsa and S. Europaea. The soil salt content that two halophytes had the highest dry matter yield were different in different types of salt. In treatments of four groups, the max of dry matter yield of S. Salsa were appeared on 0.5%, 1.5%, 1.5% and 1.5% of soil salt, respectively, and S. europaea were appeared on 1.5%, 1.5%, 0.5% and 0.5% of soil salt. The dry matter yield of two halophytes were decreasing significantly in high soil salt content treatments, and S. europaea's rating decreased significantly more than S. Salsa's rating. The salt of content of two halophytes were gradually increased with the increase of salinity. In different types of salt treatments, the salt accumulation of two halophytes increase at first and then descend with the increase of salinity. Under low salinity, the salt accumulation of S. salsa showed Cl->SO42-—Cl->Cl-—SO42->SO42-, under moderate and high salinity, the salt accumulation of S. salsa showed SO42-—Cl->Cl-—SO42->SO42->Cl-. Under low salinity, the salt accumulation of S. europaea showed Cl-—SO42->SO42->Cl->SO42-—Cl-, under moderate and high salinity the salt accumulation of S. europaea showed smiley with S. Salsa. The results of two-factor variance analysis showed that the dry matter yield, plant height, branch number, chlorophyll content, salt content and salt accumulation were affected remarkably by the soil salinity, treatment group and their interactive effect. Among them, the soil salinity is the leading factor, but the content of chlorophyll were much influence by treatment group. (3)There were obvious difference on plant height, stem diameter, fresh weight unit area, dry weight unit area, and succulent degree on different planting years of S. Salsa, and the plant height, stem diameter, fresh weight unit area and dry weight unit area were increased with increasing years of planting, but succulent degree changed in the opposite trend. The shoot salt content and main ions content showed an decreased trend year by year from planting to the 3th year on all the growth stages, and the shoot salt content and main ions of seeding stage was obvious higher than adult stage and flowering and seed filled stage. The salt accumulation was controlled by shoot biomass and salt content on late stage. There were significant differences among different planting years, and that illustrated S. Salsa had steady accumulation of salt in improving Saline-alkali land under the condition of artificial cultivation. (4)After planting S. Salsa on the heavy saline-alkali soil, the the soil salt and ions distribution in soil profile was significantly affected by planting years, the upper layers (0~40cm) of soil salinity decreased gradually with the increase of planting years, while the under layer(40~120cm) of soil salinity was increased first then decreased. Na+ and Cl- were easy to be leached and uptake by the plant, and the contents of which decreased considerably between different planting years. The decreasing rates of the two ions in upper layer soil were all above 49% after three planting years. Since it's hard for Ca2+ and SO42- to move with water, the speed of two ions' leaching were slow. HCO3- and Mg2+ contents in soil influenced by hydrated radius and the speed of two ions' leaching in second and third plantings higher than first year. The percentage of Cl- in salt content of upper layers decreased the percentage of Ca2+ increased, the SAR value and the soil salinity decreased significantly after three planting years.
学科领域环境科学
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.xjlas.org/handle/365004/14763
专题研究系统_荒漠环境研究室
作者单位中科院新疆生态与地理研究所
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
王旭. 盐生植物生长发育与土壤盐分的关系及其对盐渍土的改良研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院大学,2016.
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