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增温和覆雪对甘肃马先蒿生物量分配及其寄主物候的影响
陆均
学位类型硕士
导师胡玉昆
2016
学位授予单位中国科学院大学
学位授予地点北京
学位专业生态学
关键词甘肃马先蒿 半寄生植物 物候 高寒草原 生物量分配 异速生长关系 气候变暖 覆雪处理
摘要研究表明,近几十年来西北干旱区朝暖湿化发展;天山地区冬季降雪量持续增加;加之近年来根部半寄生植物甘肃马先蒿在巴音布鲁克草原快速扩张,使牧草生长的生态位受排挤,畜牧业发展受到影响。 气候变暖背景下,研究甘肃马先蒿与寄主在不同生长阶段的种间关系可以揭示甘肃马先蒿种群蔓延生长和扩张策略,而对其进行个体水平的生物量分配状况和物候研究可以为更深入解释寄生植物的物种扩张提供重要依据。为此,本文在新疆巴音布鲁克高寒草原通过开顶箱(Open Top Chamber,OTC)模拟增温和覆雪处理模拟冬季降雪变化(减雪处理W,自然降雪CK和增雪处理F),分别从物候、生物量分配和个体形态特征去探讨甘肃马先蒿种群在应对气候变化时的生长策略。论文得出以下主要结论: 1.增温和覆雪处理后甘肃马先蒿降低繁殖投资而增加营养投资,其生物量分配对增雪处理的响应更显著。增温和覆雪处理后生物量分配次序都为茎叶分配>花分配>根分配。甘肃马先蒿各器官之间存在某种协同生长的关系,这种关系具有一致性,不随增温和覆雪处理而变化。 2.增温后甘肃马先蒿的冠幅、分枝数和根深均发生极显著差异,株高和侧根长无显著差异;增温降低了地上部分个体形态指标间的联系;增温对甘肃马先蒿的地上部分的生长有一定抑制作用。增温不利于甘肃马先蒿种群的扩展。 增雪处理后甘肃马先蒿的株高、冠幅、花柱高度以及侧根尺寸均发生显著差异,减雪处理后除了侧根尺寸与对照相比有显著差异外,其它部分均无显著差异;增雪处理(F)并未显著改变个体形态指标间的相关性,但减雪处理(W)同时加强了地上部分个体形态指标间以及地上和地下部分的联系 。 3.增温后甘肃马先蒿及其寄主的不同物候期响应不一致;另外,增温后不同功能组分在不同物候期(返青期、花期物候、秋季物候)的开始时间的趋势表现一致。 覆雪处理(F和W)使得甘肃马先蒿及其多数寄主的生长季减短;同时,覆雪处理使得甘肃马先蒿及其大部分寄主的花期物候提前,秋季物候延后;甘肃马先蒿的物候进程从结实期开始逐渐领先寄主。在研究区增温增湿和冬季降雪量增加背景下,甘肃马先蒿通过物候分化实现有效竞争。
其他摘要Studies have shown that the northwest arid areas towards the development of warming and wet in recent decades, and that the winter snowfall continues to increase in tianshan region. In recent years the Pedicularis kansuensis L., a root parasitic plant, made a rapid expansion in Bayinbuluke grassland, which had made a negative impact on the ecological niche of forage growth and animal husbandry development. Under the background of climate change, studying the interspecific relationship of P.kansuensis and host in different growth stages can reveal the spread of spopulation growing and expansion strategy of P. kansuensis, and the study of the biomass distribution of individual level and phenology research will help to make a deeper understanding of the role of parasitic relationship in species expansion. In this paper, we arrangement a research to simulate waming and winter snowfall change in the alpine grassland of Xinjiang through OTC and the snow cover change (snow reduced, CK and snow addition), all the work is for investigating the growth strategies of P. kansuensis population respectively from the phenology, biomass allocation and individual characteristics in response to climate change. Here are the following main conclusions: 1. After arming and the snow cover change, P. kansuensis reduced reproductive investment and increase nutrition investment, the biomass allocation of which response to snow addition treatment was more prominent. The sequence of biomass allocation was stem leaf allocation > flowers allocation > root allocation after arming and the snow cover change. the coordinated growth relationship between different organs of P. kansuensis, which would not change with the warming and the snow cover change, is consistent. 2. After warming the canopy, branch number and roots deepth of P. kansuensis showed a significant differences, while its plant height and lateral root length had no significant difference; Warming reduced the relationship between individual form indicators aboveground; and had certain inhibition for the growth of. P. kansuensis. After snow addition the plant height, canopy, height of style and size of lateral root of P. kansuensis were significant differences compared to CK, the other parts had no significant difference after snow reduced except the size of lateral root compared with CK; Snow addition (F) did not change the significant correlation among the individual form indicators, instead, the snow reduced (W) strengthen the relationship of individual form indicators between the aboveground part and the underground at the same time. 3. The response to warming of different phenological phases of P. kansuensis and its host is inconsistent; In addition, after warming the different function components of community show a same trend in the start time of different phenological phase (regreening stage, flowering phenology, autumn phenology) . Snow cover change (F and W)makes P. kansuensis and most of the host a shortened growing season; Meanwhile, the snow cover change makes flowering phenology in advanced and the autumn phenological delay of P. kansuensis and most of the host; The phenological process of P. kansuensis began to lead its host from solid phase.The P. kansuensis would achieve effective competition according to phenology polalization under the background of warming & humidifying and the increasing winter snowfall in the study area.
学科领域生态学
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.xjlas.org/handle/365004/14765
专题研究系统_荒漠环境研究室
作者单位中科院新疆生态与地理研究所
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
陆均. 增温和覆雪对甘肃马先蒿生物量分配及其寄主物候的影响[D]. 北京. 中国科学院大学,2016.
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