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新疆天山中段南坡种子植物多样性垂直分布格局研究
刘彬
学位类型博士
导师尹林克 ; 塔西甫拉提·特依拜
2017-05-01
学位授予单位中国科学院大学
学位授予地点新疆乌鲁木齐
学位专业理学博士
关键词植物区系 Twinspan 数量分类 Rda 排序 海拔梯度 物种多样性 土壤理化指标 天山中段南坡 Seed Flora Twinspan Quantity Classification Rda Ordination Altitude Gradient Species Diversity Soil Properties The souThern Slope Of The Tianshan Mountains
摘要植物多样性垂直分布格局及其维持机制的研究可以有效揭示植物物种多样性分布特征及其影响环境因子,为区域物种资源的保护及可持续开发利用提供理论依据。新疆天山南坡是帕米尔-天山山地生物地理省物种较为丰富的生境区域,也是我国具有重要意义的生物资源和生物多样性关键地区之一。目前该区主要集中在局部区域植物区系特征及植物群落物种多样性的研究上,对于大尺度的植物区系特征、性质及沿海拔梯度格局研究及大区域范围内的植物群落物种多样性海拔梯度格局及其影响环境因子则缺乏系统地研究。为了更好地了解该区植物多样性分布格局及其影响环境因子,本研究以新疆天山中段南坡为研究区,以种子植物为研究对象,利用研究区大尺度的物种数据及群落尺度的物种样方调查资料,利用地统计学和数量生态学的理论与方法,从植物区系组成、特征及性质、植物区系海拔梯度格局、植物群落物种多样性分布格局及其影响环境因子等方面进行了系统、深入地研究。主要研究结果如下: 1. 新疆天山中段南坡种子植物种类相对丰富,优势科现象明显,大种属和寡种属占据优势。根据大尺度区域物种数据统计,共有种子植物 87 科、439 属,1454 种,分别占新疆种子植物科、属、种总数的 75.65%、59.89%和 40.57%;科内大科优势现象明显,物种丰富性趋向于集中在菊科(Composifa,188 种)、禾本科(Graminae,184 种)、豆科(Leguminosae,135 种)等 15 个大科内,所含种数占区域总种数的75.58%。这是植物在严酷的荒漠环境中长期进化适应的结果。属的组成中以大种属(≥10 种)和寡种属(2~5 种)为主,其所含种数分别占总种数的 32.68%和 34.68%。生活型组成中,木本植物种类相对比较匮乏,乔木 12 种,灌木 168 种,两者合占该区总种数的 12.39%,草本植物有 1262 种,占该区总种数的 86.85%,区系成分中占绝对优势。 2.该区新疆特有种及珍稀濒危保护植物较多。有新疆特有种 55 种,隶属 20 科43 属,占新疆特有种、所隶属科、属的 20.91%、57.14%和 37.07%;有各类珍稀濒危野生植物 55 种,其中,IUCN 物种红色名录(2010)收录 9 种;《濒危野生动植物种国际贸易公约》CITES(2010)收录 10 种;新疆维吾尔自治区重点保护植物 37 种,其中,I 级保护植物有 25 种,II 级保护植物有 12 种;保留了第四纪冰期之前的残遗植物物种 51 种。该区域植物区系具有既古老又年青的特征。科、属的植物区系地理成分均以温带地理成分为主。温带分布及其变型科有 26科,占非世界分布总科数的 60.46%;属的温带地理成分在区系中占明显优势, 占到总属数的 62.67%。这与新疆所处欧亚大陆腹地的干旱气候环境是相适应的。3.大区域尺度内,科、属及种的物种丰富度均表现出随着海拔升高,丰富度先增加、后减少的单峰分布格局,峰值出现在中低海拔 1900-2000m 处,说明此海拔段是天山中段南坡地区资源组合(水、热)的最佳地段。不同生活型植物沿海拔梯度的变化格局不同。乔木、一年生草本、藤本及寄生植物是随着海拔梯度的升高呈现降低的趋势。灌木、多年生草本及二年生草本植物是呈现单峰变化格局,但灌木和二年生草本的峰值低于多年生草本植物的峰值。灌木的峰值区域在海拔 1400-2000m 处,多年生草本的峰值在海拔 1900-2500m 处,二年生草本的峰值在海拔 1500-2100 m 处。水分与能量是限制物种丰富度分布的主要环境影响因子。 4.世界成分比重沿海拔梯度的升高呈单峰分布结构;温带区系成分所占比重在海拔梯度上的分布呈缓慢上升趋势,这与温带区系植物耐低温,适合生长在高海拔地区的生态适应性是相吻合的;古地中海地理成分 Tdzh比重在海拔梯度上呈现双峰变化格局;热带区系成分 Trd 沿海拔梯度分布虽呈波浪状分布,但总的趋势呈现随海拔的升高而逐渐下降的趋势;东亚地理成分 Tdy 比重沿海拔梯度的分布呈双峰分布格局,高峰区间分别是 2400-2500m 和 3300-3400m;这些分布格局均与当地干旱气候条件及海拔带上的热量和水分条件的变化相适应的。该区温带区系成分占绝对的主导地位,所以该区没有区系平衡点。 5.经 TWINSPAN 数量分类,126 个群落样地被划分成合头草+琵琶柴+霸王-戈壁针茅+盐生草群落、天山猪毛菜+骆驼刺+裸果木群落、准噶尔铁线莲-纤绠蒿+狗尾草+黄花苜蓿群落、白皮锦鸡儿-草原苔草+针茅群落、线叶嵩草+棱子芹群落、线叶嵩草+委陵菜+大红红景天群落、雪岭云杉-刺叶锦鸡儿-苔草+早熟禾群落等 25 个群落类型。山地荒漠带和山地荒漠草原带分布的群落类型多是以荒漠灌木、半灌木为主组成的群落类型;高山高寒草地与高山高寒草甸植被带中的群落类型主要是以喜湿、耐寒、喜肥的以禾本科、莎草科植物为主的优势群体。群落类型分布是与海拔梯度上气候与土壤环境因子的变化相适应的。不同生活型物种多样性指数在不同植被类型分布中表现不同。灌木物种的四种多样性指数值均较草本物种的低,群落总体的物种多样性受草本物种影响较大,其变化趋势与其大致相同。不同生活型物种多样性分布格局与环境因子如水分、热量及土壤营养成分的变化是相适应的。6.在RDA排序分析的基础上,运用GAM模型模拟了不同生活型物种多样性指数沿海拔梯度的分布格局。不同生活型物种的海拔梯度格局是不同的。灌木物种的四种多样性指数中,Patrick丰富度指数Rs、Pielou 均匀度指数Es、Shannon-wiener 多样性指数Hs均表现出单调下降趋势,而Simpson多样性指数Ds则呈现单峰曲线格局,峰值出现在海拔2200~2300m处。草本物种的四种多样性指数中,Patrick丰富度指数Rh呈现单峰曲线结构,其余三种多样性指数Eh、Hh和Dh均呈现单调上升趋势。植物群落总体物种多样性指数中,Patrick丰富度指数Rt呈现单峰分布结构,即随着海拔的升高呈现先升高再降低的趋势,峰值出现在中高海拔带3100~3200m处;Pielou均匀度指数Et、Shannon-Wiener多样性指数Ht呈现随着海拔升高先降低再升高的U型曲线结构;Simpson多样性指数Dt则呈现单调上升趋势。草本层植物生长受小环境基质(土壤有机质、土壤含水量、全氮、有效氮、有效磷)即小尺度的资源可利用性的影响较大,灌木的生长受海拔梯度上水热变化的影响较大。 7. 通过物种多样性指数与土壤环境因子及海拔因子间的RDA排序分析,影响植物群落物种多样性分布格局的主要环境因子是海拔Elev、土壤水SW、有机质SOM、全氮TN、全磷TP、有效氮AN和土壤总盐TS。不同生活型的物种对环境因子的变化响应不同。8. 由于处在不同的气候及地质环境背景下,影响不同区域群落物种多样性的环境因子不同。影响和静巴仑台区和库车区植物群落物种多样性分布格局的主要环境因子是海拔、土壤水、全氮、有效氮、有机质和全盐;影响拜城区的主要环境因子是海拔、土壤水、有机质、全氮、有效氮;影响温宿区的主要环境因子是海拔、土壤水、有机质、全氮、全磷、有效氮、有效磷和全盐。不同生活型植物由于处在不同的气候及地质环境背景下,形成对不同环境因子适应的选择性响应。
其他摘要Vertical distribution pattern of species diversity and its maintaining mechanism can effectively reveal the diversity of plant species distribution and the environmental factors affecting plant species diversity, and provide a theoretical basis for the sustainable development and utilization of the species resources protection area.The middle section in the southern slope of Tianshan Mountains in Xinjiang belongs to the pamir-Tianshan mountain biogeographic province in Xinjiang,it is a relatively abundant habitat area of species, also it is one of the key areas of biological resources and biodiversity and is great significance in our country. The regional flora and plant community diversity of this area are be mainly focused on, the floristic characteristics, properties and species diversity along altitudinal gradients and their affecing environmental factors for large-scale are not systematically studied at present.By combining with large-scale species data in the research area and by using data analysis on community ecology sample plots are conducted,based on the theories of geostatistics and quantiataive ecology, the following perspectives are be systematically and deeply studied: they are floristic compositions, the distribution pattern of floristic geological compositions along altitudinal gradients, the quantitative classification and ordination of plant communities, distribution characteristics of species diversity of plant communities with different life forms, distribution pattern of species diversity along altitudinal gradient and the relationship of environmental factors. The aim is to reveal the distribution characteristics and patterns of flora along altitudinal gradients and distribution characteristics of the species diversity as well as the environmental influencing factors. By doing so, a theoretical basis for the protection as well as sustainable development and utilization of species resources are be attempt to provided. The main research results are shown as follows: 1. The species of seed plants are relatively abundant in the middle section on the southern slope of Tianshan mountains in Xinjiang, and the advantages of the dominant species are obvious, and the dominant species and the oligophilus are dominant. Based on large-scale regional species data statistics,there are 1,454 species of seed plants, belonging to 439 genera divided into 87 families in the whole middle section in the southern slope of Tianshan Mountains. They account for 40.57%, 59.89% and 75.65% of all the species, genera and families of seed plants in Xinjiang, as well as 4.72%, 13.72% and 25.36% in those of seed plants in China. This is the result of long-term adaptation of plants to harsh desert environments.The genera with species (10 species) and species (2~5 species), which contains species accounted for 32.68% of the total species and 34.68%.In life-form compositions, species of woody plants are scarcity, merely including 12 trees together with 168 shrubs which occupy 12.39% of total species in the region, While 1,262 herbs account for 86.85%, showing absolute advantages in floristic compositions 2. Endemic species of Xinjiang and rare and endangered plants are more abundant in this area. There are 55 special species in Xinjiang, which belong to 20 families covering 43 genera and account for 20.91%, 57.14% and 37.07% of the species, families and genera, respectively. In addition, 55 species of rare and endangered wild plants grow in the region, 9 of which are listed in IUCN red list of threatened species (2010) and 10 species are recorded in Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) (2010). Besides, there are thirty-seven plant species critically protected in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, including 25 and 12 protected species under grades I and II separately. The geographical compositions of plant flora at family and generic levels are dominated by warm-temperate geological compositions. 3. The analysis results of distribution pattern of floristic compositions along altitudinal gradient in the southern slope of Tianshan Mountains show that the species richness at family, generic and species levels in the research area firstly increases and then decreases for Large regional scale. That is, it shows a unimodal distribution with increasing elevation and the peak appears at middle-low elevations, ranging from 1,900 to 2,000 m above the sea level. Plants with different life forms demonstrate different change patterns along altitudinal gradients. The diversity of plants including trees, annual herbs, vines and parasitic plants decreases with the increase of altitudinal gradients. The richness of plants such as shrubs, perennial herbs and biennial herbs shows a unimodal change pattern. However, the richness peaks of shrubs and biennial herbs are lower than that of perennial herbs. The richness peaks of shrubs, perennial herbs and biennial herbs appear at the elevation of 1,400~2,000 m, 1,900~2,500 m and 1,500~2,100 m above the sea level, respectively. Water and energy are the main environmental factors that limit species richness distribution. 4. The distribution proportions of Cosmopolita show a slow Unimodal trend,the distribution proportions of warm-temperate floristic composition Twd and geographical compositions Tdzh of Tethys show a slow increasing trend and a double-peak change pattern along altitudinal gradients, respectively. Although tropical floristic composition Trd distributes in a wave form, it shows a gradual decrease trend on the whole with the increase of the elevation. The overall distribution trend of proportion of geographical composition Tdy in East Asia along altitudinal gradients demonstrates a double-peak distribution pattern and the peaks range from 2,400 to 2,500 m and 3,300 to 3,400 m. The warm-temperate floristic compositions are absolutely dominant and there is no floristic equilibrium point in this area. 5. Based on the two way indicator species analysis (TWINSPAN) quantitative classification, the 126 sample plots of plant communities are divided into 25 community types. They include Ass.Sympegma regelii +Reaumuria soongorica +Sarcozygium xanthoxylon-Stipa tianschanica subsp. gobica+Halogeton glomeratus, Ass.Salsola unatovii +Alhagi sparsifolia +Gymnocarpos przewalski,Ass.Clematis songarica-Artemisia pewzowii +Setaria viridis +Medicago falcata, Ass.Caragana leucophloea -Carex liparocarpos+Stipa sp., Ass.Kobresia capillifolia+Pleurospermum, Ass.Kobresia capillifolia+Potentilla bifurca+Rhodiola coccinea, Ass.Picea schrenkiana~Caragana acanthophylla -Carex sp.+Poa sp et al.. More community types of desert shrubs and semishrubs are distributed among the mountain desert and mountain desert grassland. The types of communities in alpine alpine meadows and alpine alpine meadows are mainly dominanted by the gramineae and tcyperaceae of hygrophilous, cold-resistant, fertilizer characteristics. The distribution of community type is compatible with the change of climate and soil environmental factors at altitudinal gradient. The species diversity indices of different life forms are different in different vegetation types. In comparisons of species diversities of different vegetation community types, all of the four diversity indexes of shrub species are lower than those of herb species. Moreover, the total species diversity of communities is greatly affected by herb species and presents basically same change trends with that of herb species. The distribution pattern of different life-forms species diversity are compatible with environmental factors such as moisture, heat and soil nutrient composition. 6. Based on RDA ordination, the distribution pattern of diversity indexes of species with different life-forms along altitudinal gradients is simulated by using the GAM model. Among the four diversity indexes of shrub species, Patrick richness index Rs, Pielou evenness index Es and Shannon-Wiener diversity index Hs show a monotonic decreasing trend, while Simpson diversity index Ds presents a unimodal curve pattern, demonstrating a peak at 2,200~2,300 m above the sea level. Of the four diversity indexes of herb species, Patrick richness index Rh displays a unimodal curve pattern, while the other three indexes Eh, Hh and Dh monotonously escalate. As for the diversity indexes of total species in plant communities, Patrick richness index Rt distributes in a unimodal pattern, that is, with the increase of the elevation, the index Rt firstly rises and then decreases and a peak appears at 3,100~3,200 m of middle-high elevations. Pielou evenness index Et and Shannon-Wiener diversity index Ht show U-shaped curve structures, namely, a first increase and then decrease trend with raising elevation. Moreover, Simpson diversity index Dt presents a monotonous increasing trend. 7.RDA ordination of diversity index of species with environmental factors of soils and elevation factors is conducted. The results show that factors including elevation (Elev), SW, SOM, TN, TP, AN and total salt (TS) in soils mainly influence distribution pattern of species diversity of plant community. The stepwise regression analysis is carried out on environmental factors of soils and elevation influencing diversity indexes of species in communities in the middle section of southern slope of Tianshan Mountains. The results demonstrate that elevation is the primary environmental factor affecting the species richness index Rt of communities. TP influences the total Shannon-Wiener diversity index Ht of species. Moreover, SW and TP have influences on the total Simpson diversity index Dt of species in communities. Diversity indexes of species with different life forms respond to environmental factors of soils and elevation in different manners.Factors including SOM, TS and pH of soils influence the richness index Rh of herb species, while elevation, TP, AP and AN affect the Shannon-Wiener index Hh. Moreover, the Simpson diversity index Dh of herb species is affected by SW, AP and TP, while TS has influences on evenness index Eh of herb species. As for shrub species, its species richness index Rs is affected by elevation and TP, and Simpson diversity index Ds is influenced by SW. 8. Due to the different climate and geological environment, the environmental factors that affect the diversity of species in different regions are different.he species diversity of plant communities in different sample plots in the research area and environmental factors are further analyzed. Environmental factors comprising Elev, SW, TN, AN, SOM and TS mainly influence the distribution pattern of species diversity of plant communities in Baluntai (Hejing County) and Kuche regions. While Baicheng region is mainly affected by environmental factors including Elev, SW, SOM, TN and AN. Moreover, environmental factors consisting of Elev, SW, SOM, TN, TP, AN, AP and TS have impacts on Wensu region.
学科领域生态学
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.xjlas.org/handle/365004/14786
专题研究系统_荒漠环境研究室
作者单位中国科学院新疆生态与地理研究所
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
刘彬. 新疆天山中段南坡种子植物多样性垂直分布格局研究[D]. 新疆乌鲁木齐. 中国科学院大学,2017.
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