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亚洲中部内陆地区陆地水储量时空变化研究
张鹏飞
学位类型博士
导师陈曦 ; 包安明
2017-05-01
学位授予单位中国科学院大学
学位授予地点新疆乌鲁木齐
学位专业理学博士
关键词亚洲中部内陆区 陆地水储量 水文要素 影响因素 时空变化 Central Asia Inland Area Ground Water Storage Hydrological Elements Influence Factor Temporal And Spatial Variation
摘要亚洲中部内陆地区水资源使用存在诸多问题,气候变化对全球水资源的影响逐渐加剧,使得该地区水资源纷争进一步激化。利用 GRACE 重力卫星对亚洲中部内陆区陆地水储量进行研究突破了传统方法的时空局限性,使监测大范围地区陆地水储量的变化成为可能。本研究采用 2002 年 4 月至 2014 年 12 月 GRACE(Gravity Research and ClimateExperiment)时变重力场反演的陆地水储量数据,陆地同化模型系统 GLDAS(GlobalLand Data Assimilation System)土壤水分含量数据,热带降水测量卫星 TRMM(Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission)降水数据,全球降水气候中心 GPCC(GlobalPrecipitation Climatology Centre)降水再分析数据,全球的数字高程模型 GOTOPO30DEM 数据,GIMMS(Global Inventory Modelling and Mapping Studies)NDVI 月数据,GlobCover2009 全球陆地覆盖数据,以及相应地区的河网分布矢量图。通过趋势分析、分区统计分析、空间上的相关性分析、EOF(Empirical Orthogonal Function)经验正交函数分析以及定性分析,研究亚洲中部内陆区土壤水分含量、降水量、陆地水储量的时空变化,分析比较研究区内土壤水分含量和降水量与陆地水储量的相关性,分析亚洲中部山区陆地水储量的时空变化,总结影响亚洲中部内陆区陆地水储量的自然因素以及人为因素及其影响机理,比较各个山区降水对陆地水储量的影响程度。本研究的主要结论如下:1、亚洲中部内陆区土壤水分含量年际变化:新疆在山区增加,在盆地减少;中亚五国在沙漠区增加,在研究区中南部地区高速率减少,在 2008-2009 年和 2011 年存在两个极值点。年内变化除新疆南疆个别地区增加,其余地区减少,中亚五国呈现增加-减少-增加的过程,极值点在 4、8 月,新疆呈现增加-减少的单峰趋势最大值点在 6 月。2、亚洲中部内陆区降水量年际变化:在山区及哈萨克斯坦北部和塔吉克斯坦东部增加,在研究区中南部地区高速率减少,在 2008 年降至最低。年内变化在研究区中南部地区高速率减少,中亚五国呈现增加-减少-增加的过程,极值点在 4、9 和 11月,新疆呈现增加-减少的单峰趋势最大值点在 7 月。3、亚洲中部内陆区陆地水储量年际变化:新疆昆仑山山区增加,准噶尔盆地减少;中亚五国呈现自东向西减少速率逐渐增加,且均存在 2005、2008、2010 年三个极值点。年内在新疆昆仑山东段增加,向西北方增加速率逐渐递减,在哈萨克斯坦中部向西北方向和南部地区陆地水储量减少速率增大,中亚五国和新疆呈现增加-减少-增加的过程,中亚五国极值点在 3、10 月,新疆极值点在 7、10 月。4、年际变化土壤水分含量与降水量的空间分布一致,陆地水储量与二者一致地区集中在新疆昆仑山东段均呈现较高速率增加。三者年际变化均呈现减少的趋势,在2008 年降至最低;年内变化土壤水分含量、降水量以及陆地水储量空间分布均在研究区中南部地区呈现较高速率的下降趋势,中亚五国年内变化呈现增加-减少-增加的过程,极值点在 3-4 月和 9-10 月,新疆呈现增加-减少的过程极大值点在 6-7 月。5、土壤水分含量对陆地水储量的影响相对于降水的影响范围更大,两者在研究区中南部地区均与陆地水储量呈现较强的相关性,且土壤水分含量相关性更大,天山以南地区陆地水储量受到降水的影响大于土壤水分含量。6、亚洲中部内陆区地势较高的地区受人类活动的影响较小,以自然影响因素为主。河网分布稠密地区陆地水储量变化由于径流补给等作用,对相应地区陆地水储量减少有一定缓冲作用,但随着冰雪量的减少导致径流量下降最终该地区陆地水储量减少速率将会大幅度增加。亚洲中部内陆区耕地主要沿河流在山前平原分布较多,人类活动对陆地水储量的影响主要集中在开垦耕地过程中引水灌溉,加剧水资源蒸散发,同时部分地区抽取地下水用于灌溉以及生活,使陆地水储量的减少趋势更加明显。但是总体上,影响该地区陆地水储量的主要因素仍是自然因素。7、阿尔泰山区陆地水储量变化最剧烈,变化幅度随时间呈现增加的趋势,降水对阿尔泰山区陆地水储量的变化影响较小;西天山和东天山山区,喀喇昆仑山与昆仑山山区由于地理位置较为接近,陆地水储量变化趋势相似。东天山比西天山陆地水储量变化受到降水量变化的影响更大,后两个地区陆地水储量受降水的影响均较小。祁连山山区陆地水储量变化是唯一呈现明显的增加趋势的研究区,受到降水强度的影响较大。
其他摘要There are a lot of problems on utilization of water resources in Central Asia inland area. With all the influences of climatic change to global water, disputes over the sharing of water resources become more acute. Leveraging GRACE satellite data to explore the water storage in Central Asia inland break through the time and space limitations of traditional methods. It is opening up a new possibility for monitoring the wate storage in a large area. The study uses the GRACE (Gravity Research and Climate Experiment) satellite time-variable gravity field to inverse the land water storage, soil moisture spatial data from GLDAS (Global Land Data Asimilation System), precipitation data from TRMM (Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission) and GPCC (Global Precipitation Climatology Centre), Global DEM (Digital Elevation Model) data of GOTOPO30, NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) data from GIMMS (Global Inventory Modelling and Mapping Studies), global land cover data of GlobCover2009 and distribution of river network in corresponding locale. The trend analyses, zonal statistical analyses, spatial correlation analysis, EOF (Empirical Orthogonal Function) analysis and qualitative analytical method are used to study temporal and spatial variation of soil moisture, precipitation, land water storage in Central Asia inland area.The correlation between soil moisture and land water storage, precipitation and land water storage, the temporal and spatial variation of land water storage over Central Asia Mountains, incidence of precipitation to land water storage in different zones, the physical factors and human factors affect on land water storage and influence mechanism. The main results are as follows: 1. The interannual variation of soil moisture in Cental Asia inland area as follows: it increases in mountainous areas and decreases in depression over Xinjiang. it also increases in desert area and decreases with higher speed in the mid-south of the study area.Its two extreme points appear in 2008-2009 and 2011. The annual variance of soil moisture in Cental Asia inland area increases in rare places and decreases in the rest of the region. The changing process appears increase-decrease-increase over the five countries in central Asia and the extreme points appear in April and August.The changing process appears increase-decrease over Xinjiang and the maximum value appears in June. 2. The interannual variation of percipitation increases in the mountain areas, the north of Kazakhstan and the east of Tajikistan in Cental Asia inland area. It decreases with higher speed in the mid-south of the study area and falls to it lowst level in 2008. The annual variance of precipitation in Cental Asia inland area decreases with higher speed in the mid-south of the study area. The changing process appears increase-decrease-increase over the five countries in central Asia and the extreme points appear in April, September and November. The changing process appears increase-decrease over Xinjiang and the maximum value appears in July. 3. The interannual variation of land water storage in Cental Asia inland area as follows: it increases in Kunlun Mountains and decreases in Junggar Basin. The reduction rate gradually increases from east to west over the five countries in central Asia and the extreme points appear in 2005, 2008 and 2010. The annual variance of land wate storage in Cental Asia inland area increases in the east of Kunlun Mountains and the rate of increase gradually decreasesin the northwestward direction. . In the middle of Kazakhstan the reduction rate gradually increases in the northwestward and north direction. The changing process appears increase-decrease-increase over the five countries in central Asia and Xinjiang. The exteme points appear in March and October over the five countries in central Asia while in July and October over Xinjiang. 4. The interannual variation of soil moisture and precipitation is similar in special distribution. The land water storage is similar with the first two in the east of Kunlun Mountains. The three all appear in higher rate increase. The interannual variation of the three decrease and the lowest point appearin 2008. The annual variance of the three are comparatively unanimous in spatial distribution, and the three all appear in higher rate decrease in the mid-south of the study area. The changing process appears increase-decrease-increase over the five countries in central Asia in March to April and September to October. The changing process appears increase-decrease over Xinjiang and the maximum value appears in June to July. 5. The influence area of soil moisture to land water storage is bigger than precipitation. The two both appear stronger correlation with land water storagein the mid-south of the study areaThe correlation between soil moisture and land water storage is much bigger. The land water storage is much bigger influenced by the precipitation than soil moisture in the south of Tianshan Mountains. 6. Altai Mountains undergo the most acute change. Its' rangeability is increasing with time although the degree of fitting with precipitation changes is the worst. Western Tianshan and Eastern Tianshan are similar in trends of land water storage change because of their proximity, the land water storage change of Eastern Tianshan is affected by precipitation more than Western Tianshan. Hargoolun Range and Kunlun Mountains are also similar in change trends because of proximity.The land water storage change of the two parts is less affected by precipitation. Qilian Mountains is the most obvious with regards to GRACE-EWT change rising, Qilian Mountains is affected by precipitation much bigger than other parts. 7. The land water storage is less influenced by human activities in higher terrain region. The physical factor is the main influence factor. The change of land water storage in river network distribution dense zone is influenced by river flow much bigger, but with the amount of snow and ice decreasing the land water storage will fall substantially in corresponding locale. 8. The plough is mainly distribute along the streams and rivers in Cental Asia inland area.Human activities influence the land water storage is mainly by diversion irrigation. With the diversion irrigation increasing the evapotranspiration is increasing. At the same time, the overuse of ground water also play a part in the land water storage. But in general, the natural factor takes the main character.
学科领域地图学与地理信息系统
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.xjlas.org/handle/365004/14795
专题研究系统_荒漠环境研究室
研究系统_空间对地观测与系统模拟研究室
作者单位中国科学院新疆生态与地理研究所
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
张鹏飞. 亚洲中部内陆地区陆地水储量时空变化研究[D]. 新疆乌鲁木齐. 中国科学院大学,2017.
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