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学科主题: 环境科学
题名:
聚苯乙烯微粒和蒽的联合作用对斑马鱼的影响
作者: 蔡亚云
答辩日期: 2017-05-01
导师: 潘响亮
专业: 理学硕士
授予单位: 中国科学院大学
授予地点: 新疆乌鲁木齐
学位: 硕士
关键词: 聚苯乙烯 ; ; 摄取 ; 毒害 ; polystyrene microplastics ; anthracene ; uptake ; toxicity
摘要: 水环境中的微塑料污染不仅破坏生态系统,而且危害水生动物。生物体会误食微塑料,微塑料的粒径是影响生物摄取和累积的主要因素之一。本文使用激光扫描共聚焦显微镜观察20-1000 nm的聚苯乙烯微粒在斑马体内的累积情况,除了摄取,聚苯乙烯微粒还可能是通过肠的渗透作用能进入到鱼体内,这可能是小粒径的塑料进入生物体的另一个途径。并且只研究单一的污染物已经不能够完全了解复杂的污染体系对水生动物的毒害效应,所以,本文选择聚苯乙烯微粒和蒽这两种物质,通过单细胞凝胶电泳技术和超细纤维光纤氧气传感器测量斑马鱼的DNA损伤和氧气的消耗量。同时通过模拟胃肠液的吸附解吸附实验,研究聚苯乙烯微粒和蒽之间的相互作用。微塑料被海洋生物摄入后,会沿着食物链向上传递,最终可能会对人类的健康造成潜在危害。本文研究聚苯乙烯微粒在无蒽和有蒽两种情况下,从团藻到斑马鱼的营养转移。本研究的主要结论如下:(1)20、50、200、500、1000 nm的聚苯乙烯微粒,均能在斑马鱼肠道累积;而只有20和50 nm的聚苯乙烯微粒,能在斑马鱼鳃和鱼肉组织中累积。同时发现20和50 nm的聚苯乙烯微粒能渗透鱼肠黏液,这可能是小粒径的塑料进入生物体组织的另一个途径。(2)在20-1000 nm的范围内,聚苯乙烯微粒对斑马鱼几乎没有毒害性,但蒽能严重损伤斑马鱼的腮细胞,聚苯乙烯微粒和蒽同时胁迫斑马鱼时,聚苯乙烯微粒阻碍了蒽的毒性。通过测量鱼的呼吸频率也证实了这一结果。这可能是因为聚苯乙烯微粒和蒽发生了吸附作用,减少了蒽接触生物体的几率,研究发现聚苯乙烯微粒和蒽的吸附反应能自发进行,但在含有高浓度胆汁盐的肠液中,蒽能从聚苯乙烯微粒上解吸附下来。(3)在没有蒽的情况下,20 nm的聚苯乙烯微粒更容易并且更多的附着在活的团藻上,因此被斑马鱼摄入团藻后,小粒径的聚苯乙烯微粒更容易进入斑马鱼体内。而在含有蒽的情况下,发现低浓度的蒽促进团藻生长,而高浓度的蒽则抑制团藻的生长状态,以及200 nm的聚苯乙烯微粒更容易附着在已死亡的团藻上,更易被斑马鱼摄入,在鱼肠内和食物累积在一起。总之,20和200 nm的聚苯乙烯微粒都能从活的或者死亡的团藻上传递到斑马鱼体内,并且经过团藻传递后,聚苯乙烯微粒和蒽的联合作用对斑马鱼的毒性降低。
英文摘要: There are many microplastics contaminations in the water environment. They not only destroy the ecosystem but also harm the aquatic animals. Organism could ingest microplastics by mistakes, and the size of microplastics is an important factor. In this paper, we studied 20-1000 nm polystyrene microparticles were taken by zebrafish, and analysis of fish tissues by laser scanning confocal microscopy. In addition, polystyrene microparticles may permeate intestinal mucus. In such complex pollution systems, single pollutant has been unable to fully explain the toxicological effects on aquatic animals, so we chosed two kinds of pollutants of polystyrene microparticles and anthracene for toxicological research. We measured the DNA damage of zebrafish using single cell gel electrophoresis, and zebrafish breathing was measured by ultrafine fiber optic fiber oxygen sensor. At the same time, the adsorption and desorption experiment between polystyrene particles and anthracene was studied in simulating in gastrointestinal fluid. Microplastics were ingested by marine life, they will be transported along the food chain, ultimately, may cause potential risks to human health. We set up two cases of anthracene and no anthracene, polystyrene microplastics transferred from the algae to the zebrafish. The main conclusions of this study are as follows:(1) Polystyrene microparticles of 20, 50, 200, 500, 1000 nm would be accumulated in the zebrafish guts; but polystyrene microparticles of 20, 50 nm could be found in the zebrafish gills and muscle. The study also found that 20 and 50 nm polystyrene particles can penetrate the intestinal mucus. It might be another way that small microplastics enter the organism.(2) Polystyrene microparticles of 20-1000 nm had little effect on zebrafish, and anthracite is highly toxic to zebrafish. Polystyrene microparticles prevented the toxicity of anthracene when fishes were exposed to both polystyrene microparticles and anthracene. The results of zebrafish breathing were the same. It is possible for adsorption of polystyrene microparticles and anthracene, which reducing the chance of anthracene exposure to organisms. It was found that the adsorption of polystyrene particles and anthracene could spontaneously proceed in simulated gastrointestinal fluid. However, anthracene could be desorbed from polystyrene microparticles in simulated intestinal fluid containing high concentrations of bile salts.(3) In the absence of anthracene, 20 nm polystyrene microparticles were more likely to adhere to live volvox. Then, polystyrene microparticles with small diameter more easily into the zebrafish body after the fish ingested algae. In contrast, in the case of containing anthracene, anthracene of low concentration promoted the growth of algae, high concentrations of anthracene would inhibit the growth of volvox. Polystyrene microparticles of 200 nm more tended to adhere to the group of dead algae, they mixed with food in the fish intestines after zebrafish ate volvox of death, polystyrene microparticles with large size more easily into the zebrafish. In summary, 20 and 200 nm polystyrene microparticles can be delivered from live or dead volvox to zebrafish. And the combined effect of polystyrene microparticles and anthracene on the zebrafish was reduced after the transfer of algae.
语种: 中文
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.xjlas.org/handle/365004/14798
Appears in Collections:研究系统_荒漠环境研究室_学位论文

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作者单位: 中国科学院新疆生态与地理研究所

Recommended Citation:
蔡亚云. 聚苯乙烯微粒和蒽的联合作用对斑马鱼的影响[D]. 新疆乌鲁木齐. 中国科学院大学. 2017.
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