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学科主题: 地图学与地理信息系统
题名:
基于遥感和景观指标的 NYUNGWE-KIBIRA 公园森林覆盖变化和破碎度监测
作者: KAYIRANGA ALPHONSE
答辩日期: 2017-05-01
导师: 艾里西尔
专业: 理学硕士
授予单位: 中国科学院大学
授予地点: 新疆乌鲁木齐
学位: 硕士
关键词: 布隆迪 ; 森林管理 ; 景观分析 ; Nyungwe-Kibira 公园 ; 遥感 ; 卢旺达 ; Burundi ; Forest Management ; Landscape Analysis ; Nyungwe-Kibira Park ; Remote Sensing ; Rwanda
摘要: 本文以跨越卢旺达和布隆迪的自然保护区的 Nyungwe-Kibira 公园为研究区域,评估研究区 1986 年至 2015 年间森林覆盖率变化及森林退化情况,分析 Nyungwe-Kibira公园保护区和周边 5 公里对照缓冲区域变化过程的相似性和差异性,定量描述人类活动对其变化的影响。本研究以 30 m 空间分辨率的 Landsat TM,ETM +和 8OLI 数据作为主要数据源,借助地理信息系统(GIS)进行土地覆盖制图与变化检测,并使用 FRAGSTATS 软件计算景观指数,分析森林覆盖和景观格局的分类与变化情况。研究结果显示,1986 年至 2015 年期间,在公园内考虑的 5 种土地覆被类型中,高覆盖率的林地占主导,面积为整个公园区域面积的 70%以上。而在对照缓冲区内,开垦耕地和开放土地更占主导地位,面积占 90%以上。变化检测显示,1986~2015 年间,在 Nyungwe-Kibira 公园区域内,森林每年大约消失了 0.27%(4.97 km2),而年再生率仅为 0.07%(1.22 km2),表明森林的消失速率远大于其恢复速率。在景观类型水平的四个景观指数研究结果表明公园内的林地分散分布,对照缓冲区内的破碎度很高。这些统计结果与木材能源消耗赤字均表明非法砍伐带来的森林减少和森林退化给公园的生态环境带来了很大的压力,这种退化发展趋势对 Nyungwe-Kibira 公园的可持续性形成了极大的威胁。研究结果可为公园的决策者和管理者提供参考,为其采取迅速有效的措施,减少森林的消失,遏制森林的退化,避免生态系统的退化,改善和维持生态系统的自我平衡能力提供科学依据。建议的措施包括:减少公园边界的社区依赖,在缓冲区再造林,通过在农田边界和可用的非森林地区应用农林业等。根据分类结果和映射结果的准确性,本文的结果可能具有一些误差和可改进的地方,为了进一步提高分析的准确性,可采用更高分辨率的遥感数据和更加详细的地面勘测弥补这方面的缺陷,以提高研究精度。然而,为保障森林管理的适宜性,有必要开展综合和常规的的评估工作。最后,建议至少每五年对自然保护区森林的时空格局进行一次分析,以此明晰森林自然再生现象等具体特征,因为在森林砍伐区,在没有其他土地利用类型存在的情况下,森林的这些特征通常会受到热带气候的影响。
英文摘要: The objective of this study was to evaluate forest cover change and forest degradation in Nyungwe-Kibira Park, a natural reserve straddling between Rwanda and Burundi from 1986 to 2015 and to analyze the correlated external disturbances from the buffer zone of 5 km delineated outside the boundary of this Park. Landsat TM, ETM+ and 8OLI images of 30 m spatial resolution were used as primary datasets. Geographic Information System (GIS) techniques were used for forest cover mapping and change detection,and landscape metrics were calculated by using FRAGSTATS software. Classification and change analysis of forest cover type and landscape patterns analysis were carried out. The results revealed that in among 5 land cover classes considered within the Park, dense forest was the dominant class covering over 70% of the entire Park area while, in the buffer zone, cultivated and open land dominated at over 90% between the years 1986 and 2015. Change detection highlighted that within Nyungwe-Kibira Park, approximately 0.27% (4.97 Km2) of forest cover was cleared while 0.07% (1.22 Km2) was regenerated annually. In the buffer zone, the annual cleared forest cover was about 0.76% (13.02 Km2), indicating that the cleared forest cover was greater than the regenerated forest cover. The four landscape indices chosen at class level indicated a considerable fragmentation of forest inside the Park and the highest fragmentation in the buffer zone. Thus, these statistical findings associated with analyzed deficit of wood energy consumption in the buffer zone indicated the increase of deforestation and forest degradation rate which implied a high pressure inside the park expressed by the increases of illegal tree cutting. Indeed, these results shed a bleak image over the future of the Nyungwe-Kibira forest that should be helpful to the policy-makers and managers of these natural Park to establish adequate policies to mitigate the forest loss and degradation by implementing quick and effective solutions. These results also alerted for the rapid and effective measures to be taken to curb the disappearance of forests, to improve and maintain the self-balancing capacity of ecosystems in this Park by reducing the community dependencies in Park’s borders and reforesting the buffer zone by applying agro-forestry in farmlands’ borders and the available non-forested areas. Based on the classification results and the accuracy evaluation results, findings of this thesis may have tolerable commission and omission errors, in order to further improve the accuracy in the future analysis of this forest, higher resolution remote sensing data and detailed ground surveys might be employed to address the shortcomings encountered and to compensate for accuracy uncertainties. However, both comprehensive and regular assessment would be necessary to ensure the proper management of the forest. Finally, it is recommended to analyze the spatial temporal patterns and the status of this natural reserve forest at least in every five years to account for the forest’s specific characteristics such as tree natural regeneration phenomena, which are often influenced by tropical climate in absence of other land uses applied in the deforested areas.
语种: 英语
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.xjlas.org/handle/365004/14799
Appears in Collections:研究系统_荒漠环境研究室_学位论文

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作者单位: 中国科学院新疆生态与地理研究所

Recommended Citation:
KAYIRANGA ALPHONSE. 基于遥感和景观指标的 NYUNGWE-KIBIRA 公园森林覆盖变化和破碎度监测[D]. 新疆乌鲁木齐. 中国科学院大学. 2017.
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