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基于生态环境功能区划的灌木群落生态服务功能研究——以哈密地区为例
曹娃
学位类型硕士
导师周华荣
2017-05-01
学位授予单位中国科学院大学
学位授予地点新疆乌鲁木齐
学位专业理学硕士
关键词哈密 灌木群落 群落学特征 生态服务功能 Hami Sharub Community Community Characteristics Ecological Service Function
摘要本文以哈密地区典型灌木群落为研究对象,通过野外样方调查,结合 TWINSPAN分类方法对群落进行分类,从各群落的物种组成结构、植物区系特征、物种多样性等方面进行分析,并对各典型灌木群落进行生态服务功能评价,研究成果可为该区植被恢复和生态重建提供科学依据。研究结果表明:(1)50 个样方调查共记录到植物 120 种,隶属于 25 科 79 属,其中以藜科、菊科、禾本科等世界性大科居多。以属的分布类型来看,本区存在 9 个分布类型和 5个变型,以北温带分布、地中海区、西亚至中亚分布以及世界分布为主。(2)应用 TWINSPAN 分类方法将 50 个样方划分为 9 个典型灌木群落类型,其中防沙固沙区中分布有 6 个灌木群落,水源涵养区分布有 1 个灌木群落,地下水源区分布有 1 个灌木群落,水土保持区分布有 2 个灌木群落,与野外植被调查的实际情况来看,分类情况较理想。(3)选用 Simpson 多样性指数、Shannon-Wiener 多样性指数、Pielou 均匀度指数、Simpson 优势度指数、Margalef 丰富度指数来描述 9 个典型灌木群落的物种多样性特征,分析得到研究区灌木群落物种多样性水平与新疆其他地区灌木群落多样性水平相比,哈密地区灌木群落多样性水平中等,物种分布不均匀,群落组成结构较简单。通过对多样性指数随海拔梯度进行分析时,发现 Shannon-Wiener 多样性指数与海拔梯度之间,随海拔上升呈现先下降后增长的趋势,并且在海拔 1200m 处多样性指数最小。(4)应用层次分析法建立典型灌木群落生态服务功能的评价体系,从支持功能、提供功能、调节功能和文化功能 4 个方面选取了 12 个评价因子。利用专家打分法确定各评价因子的权重并且为每个群落进行打分,得出研究区 9 个典型灌木群落生态服务功能等级。白皮锦鸡儿+准噶尔铁线莲-狭穗针茅群落和欧亚圆柏+疏花蔷薇-阿尔泰狗娃花群落生态服务功能较高,等级为Ⅱ级,评价等级最低为膜果麻黄+沙拐枣-白茎盐生草群落和短叶假木贼+裸果木-三芒草群落,评价等级为Ⅲ级的群落占群落总数的百分比最高,为 56%。从总体上看,研究内典型灌木群落生态服务功能处于中等水平。
其他摘要In this paper, the typical shrub community in Hami region was used as the research object. According to the quadrat investigation and TWINSPAN classification, we analyzed the species composition, floral feature and species diversity, evaluating the ecological service function of each typical shrub community. The research results can provide a scientific basis for vegetation restration and ecological reconstruction in this area. Research indicates:(1) The investigated plants belonged to 120 species, 25 families and 79 genera. Most plants belonged to Chenopodiaceae, Compositae and Cramineae, In terms of the type of distribution, there are nine distribution types and five variants in this area, the ancient Mditerranean and West Asia to Central Asia, the North temperate distribution pattern and World distribution are the dominant genera. (2) The typical shrub communities in the 50 quadrats were sorted into 9 types by using the TWINSPAN method. There are 6 shrub communities in the sand-fixing and sand-fixing area, 1 shrub community in the water conservation area, 1 shrub community in the groundwater source area, and two shrub communities in the soil and water conservation area. Classification is ideal from the actual situation of the wild vegetation survey. (3) Simpson diversity index, Shannon-Wiener diversity index, Pielou evenness index, Simpson dominance index and Margalef richness index were used to describe the species diversity characteristics of nine typical shrub communities, the results indicated that the strcture of shrub community was simple, the diversity level was medium compare with other shrub communities in Xinjiang, and species were fewer. By analyzing the diversity index with the altitude gradient, it was found that the Shannon-Wiener diversity index and the altitude gradient showed a trend of first decline after growth, and at an altitude of 1200m diversity index had a minimum number. (4)The evaluation system of ecological service function of typical shrub community was established by using analytic hierarchy process (AHP). Twelve evaluation factors were selected from four aspects: support function, provide function, adjustment function and cultural function. The weight of each evaluation factor was determined by expert scoring method and the score of each community was obtained, the ecological service function level of 9 typical shrub communities in the study area was obtained. The results showed that the ecological service function of community of Caragana leucophloea+Clematis songarica-Stipa regeliana and community of Sabina vulgaris+Rosa laxa-Heteropappus altaicus were grade Ⅱ and the lowest level of evaluation was the community of Ephedra przewalskii+Calligonum mongolicum-Halogeton arachnoideus and community of Anabasis brevifolia + Gymnocarpos przewalskii-Aristida adscensionis, the rated grade Ⅲ grade community accounted for the 56 percentage of the total community. On the whole, the ecological service function of the typical shrub community in the study was at a medium level.
学科领域环境科学
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.xjlas.org/handle/365004/14804
专题研究系统_荒漠环境研究室
作者单位中国科学院新疆生态与地理研究所
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
曹娃. 基于生态环境功能区划的灌木群落生态服务功能研究——以哈密地区为例[D]. 新疆乌鲁木齐. 中国科学院大学,2017.
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