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学科主题: 地图学与地理信息系统
题名:
基于 GIS 的无人机地理视频三维可视化
作者: 陈光
答辩日期: 2017-05-01
导师: 郑宏伟
专业: 理学硕士
授予单位: 中国科学院大学
授予地点: 新疆乌鲁木齐
学位: 硕士
关键词: 地理视频 ; 三维场景 ; 地理表达 ; 无人机视频 ; 数据模型 ; GeoVideo ; 3D scene ; Geographical Expression ; UAV Video ; Data Model
摘要: 地理视频(GeoVideo)是集成视频数据与空间数据进行地理信息表达的新方法,近20年来,国内外学者在视频GIS领域进行了相关研究。已有研究所表达的地理视频空间信息直观性差,不利于视频影像判读。此外,已有研究成果大多采用地面采集设备获取视频数据,而利用无人机获取资料的研究较少,其中关于无人机视频与三维GIS集成的相关研究更是少有报道。无人机遥感具有机动灵活、成本低、时效性强等优势,已成为获取地面数据的重要手段。提出适用于三维GIS的无人机地理视频数据模型,将无人机遥感获取的视频信息与三维GIS集成,实现无人机视频在三维场景中的动态渲染,不仅能发挥无人机自身优势,还可以充分利用三维GIS提供的空间信息快速判读无人机视频中丰富的影像信息。本文在回顾国内外学者对视频 GIS 相关研究的基础上,总结目前研究中存在的问题及发展趋势,提出了无人机地理视频数据模型的描述方法,将其抽象为视频数据、空间数据和元数据。其中元数据和空间数据分别采用 XML 文件和 CSV 文本文件存储。在此基础上开发三维无人机视频 GIS 系统,改进了许多传统视频 GIS 系统的缺陷,拓宽了地理视频的应用领域。本文的研究思路是:(1)提出无人机地理视频数据模型的描述方法,即设计无人机视频和空间数据的物理存储方法;(2)基于 MFC 和OSG 图形引擎开发三维 GIS,通过 Esri CityEngine 创建主要的三维模型,并采用VirtualPlanetBuilder(VPB)构建数字地形影像;(3)将无人机视频动态渲染到三维场景,按照真实的飞控记录模拟无人机航拍过程,计算航摄仪拍摄范围,将视频帧以纹理映射的方式显示到此范围内;(4)提出无人机地理视频数据的定量评价方法,通过测试视频帧在不同位置的定位误差,对无人机地理视频数据的精度进行定量评价。通过对本文设计的三维无人机视频 GIS 进行系统测试,结果表明:(1)本文提出的无人机地理视频数据与三维 GIS 的集成方法是可行的,且技术实现比较简单;(2)无人机的飞行模拟能够反映真实航拍过程;(3)针对二维纹理映射和三维纹理映射设计的两种视频显示模式,两种方法优势互补,可以根据实际环境进行切换;(4)视频帧显示的空间信息与对应的地理实体位置非常接近,能够反映真实地理空间信息。
英文摘要: GeoVideo is a novel geographic method for combining geographic data and spatial data. Domestic and foreign scholars have studied video GIS for more than 20 years. The spatial information expressed by the existing studies is poor in visual perception, which is not conducive to video image interpretation. In addition, the existing research results mostly adopt surface acquisition equipment collect video data, the related research on UAV video and 3D GIS integration is rarely reported. Unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) remote sensing has become an important technique to obtain ground data because of its advantages of flexibility, low cost and timeliness. Proposing the UAV GeoVideo data model and integrating UAV video with 3D GIS, which can not only achieve the own advantages of the UAV, but can make full use of 3D spatial information provided by 3D GIS and quickly interpret the image information in UAV video.This paper is based on the review of related research on video GIS home and abroad, summarizes the existing problems and development trends in the current research. The description method of UAV GeoVideo data model is proposed, which can be abstracted to video data, spatial data and metadata. Metadata and spatial data are stored by XML file and CSV text file. On this basis, the three-dimensional UAV video GIS system is developed, which improves the defects of many traditional video GIS systems, and broadens the application areas of GeoVideo. The idea of this study is: (1) Proposing the description method of UAV GeoVideo data model, which designs the physical storage method of the UAV video and spatial data; (2) Developing the 3D GIS based on MFC and OSG graphics engine, the main 3D model is created by Esri CityEngine, and digital terrain image is constructed by VirtualPlanetBuilder (VPB);(3) Dynamically rendering the UAV video to the 3D scene, the UAV aerial image is simulated according to the real flight control record. The range of the aerial camera is calculated, and the video frame is displayed in the range by texture mapping; (4) A method for quantitative evaluation of UAV video data is proposed. By testing the positioning error of video frames at different positions, the accuracy of the UAV GeoVideo data is evaluated quantitatively.By testing the design of the three-dimensional unmanned aerial vehicle video GIS system, the results show that: (1) The integration method of UAV GeoVideo data and 3D GIS proposed in this paper is feasible, and the technology is relatively simple; (2) the UAV flight simulation can reflect the real process of aerial photography; (3) Two kinds of video display modes (2D texture mapping and 3D texture mapping) are designed. The two methods can be switched according to the actual environment; (4)The spatial information displayed in the video frame is close to the location of the corresponding geographic entity, the true geospatial information can be reflected by UAV GeoVideo.
语种: 中文
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.xjlas.org/handle/365004/14805
Appears in Collections:研究系统_荒漠环境研究室_学位论文

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作者单位: 中国科学院新疆生态与地理研究所

Recommended Citation:
陈光. 基于 GIS 的无人机地理视频三维可视化[D]. 新疆乌鲁木齐. 中国科学院大学. 2017.
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