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干旱区荒漠火烧迹地遥感特征分析研究—以古尔班通古特荒漠火灾为例
陈伟强
学位类型硕士
导师杨辽
2017-05-01
学位授予单位中国科学院大学
学位授予地点新疆乌鲁木齐
学位专业工程硕士
关键词干旱区荒漠 火烧迹地 无人机 遥感反演 植被指数 Arid Desert Burned Area Uav Remote Sensing Retrieval Vegetation Index
摘要西北干旱区受内陆极端干旱气候的影响,植被覆盖稀疏,生态结构简单,脆弱性明显。受自然和人为因素的影响,干旱区频繁发生的火灾已对当地经济的发展造成了沉重的压力与威胁,火灾对生态系统,尤其对干旱荒漠区生态系统的干扰特别明显。火灾是荒漠生态系统的重要影响因子,是荒漠生态系统突变的主要因素。因此,详细研究火烧迹地的发展与变化,提取火烧迹地信息对灾区生态建设与可持续发展具有重大意义,同时为有效防御火灾的发生提供科学依据,是实现当地经济与环境可持续发展的重要组成部分。传统的火烧迹地信息获取具有调查周期长、劳动强度大等弊端,得到广泛应用与发展的现代遥感技术及地理信息技术,能够弥补传统调查方式的严重不足。本论文以 2016 年 5 月底古尔班通古特荒漠自燃灾情为研究背景,首先借助轻小型无人机,按照测绘标准规范,对火灾大致位置进行航空摄影,由内业制作生成分辨率为 20cm 的数字正摄影像,精确定位火灾位置,目视解译过火区域边界;选取灾区 2013 年至 2016 年 Landsat 8 陆地成像仪(Operational Land Imager,OLI)卫星影像数据,按照 FLAASH 模型对 OLI 影像进行大气校正,对 4 年间火灾同期遥感影像进行温度反演,同时在 ENVI 软件下通过波段运算,对长时间序列植被指数和火烧植被指数进行提取,并对火烧指数进行差分运算。分析表明:干旱荒漠区每年 5、6 月份地表温度较高,研究区植被枝叶常年堆积形成的腐蚀层,是荒漠植被自燃的主要因素;干旱荒漠区的各种植被指数较其他湿润地区低,火灾在长时序植被指数上的变化不大,从生态学角度来说,火灾的发生有利于植被的恢复或者更替;差分指数对荒漠火灾的响应能力较单一指数好,单一指数而言,对荒漠火灾适应性最好的植被指数是亮温调整归一化燃烧率第一类型(NIR-SWIR-Temperature Version 1,NSTV1),差分指数中差分归一化燃烧率(Difference Normalized Burn Ratio, dNBR)的对荒漠火灾的适宜性最好;热红外波段对火灾前后的区分度最高,不同指数中归一化燃烧率(Normalized Burn Ratio, NBR)对火灾前后的区分度最高。本论文以火灾发生时的地表温度及植被指数作为切入点,提取火烧迹地面积,分析干旱荒漠区的火灾成因,探讨各种植被指数的适宜性,选择对干旱荒漠区火灾响应能力最强烈的植被指数。
其他摘要Northwest arid area is affected by extreme arid climate inland, sparse vegetation cover,simple ecological structure and obvious vulnerability. Due to natural and human factors,the frequent occurrence of fire in arid areas has caused heavy pressure and threat to the development of the local economy. The interference of the fire on the ecosystem,especially the arid desert ecosystem is especially obvious. Fire is an important factor in desert ecosystems and is a major factor in desert ecosystem mutations. Therefore, it is of great significance to study the development and change of the burned land in detail, and to extract the information of the burned area is of great significance to the ecological construction and sustainable development of the disaster area. At the same time, it provides scientific basis for the effective prevention of the fire and is an important component to realize the sustainable development of the local economy and the environment section. The traditional information of fire burns has the shortcomings such as long investigation period,large labor intensity and so on. Modern remote sensing technology and geographic information technology which has been widely used and developed can make up the serious problems of traditional investigation methods.Based on the background of the spontaneous combustion of Gurbantunggut in the end of May 2016, first with the help of light and small unmanned aerial vehicles, in accordance with the standard mapping standards, the general location of the fire aerial photography, produced by the industry within the resolution of 20cm digital orthographic images, precise positioning of the fire location, visual interpretation of the fire area boundary. The Landsat 8 OLI (Operational Land Imager) satellite image data from 2013 to 2016 were selected and the OLI images were calibrated according to the FLAASH model. The temperature inversion of the remote sensing images during the four years was carried out.At the same time, under the ENVI, the long time series vegetation index and fire vegetation index to extract, and the burn index for differential operation. The results show that the surface temperature of arid desert is higher in May and June each year, the corrosion layer formed by perennial accumulation of vegetation foliage in the study area is the main factor of spontaneous combustion of desert vegetation. The vegetation index in arid desert area is lower than that in other humid areas, and the change of fire in the long - term vegetation index is not changed. From the ecological point of view, the occurrence of fire is beneficial to the restoration or replacement of vegetation. The response index of desert index is better than that of single index. In the single index, the best vegetation index for desert fires is NSTV1 (NIR-SWIR-Temperature Version 1,), and the suitability of dNBR (Difference Normalized Burn Ratio) in desert index is the best for desert fires. The infrared infrared band has the highest degree of discrimination before and after the fire,and the NBR (Normalized Burn Ratio) has the highest degree of discrimination before and after the fire.In this paper, the land surface temperature and vegetation index of the fire are taken as the breakthrough point of fire occurrence, extracting the area of the burned area, analyzing the cause of the fire in the arid desert area, discussing the suitability of the vegetation index,and selecting the vegetation index with the strongest fire response in the arid desert area.
学科领域测绘工程
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.xjlas.org/handle/365004/14806
专题研究系统_荒漠环境研究室
作者单位中国科学院新疆生态与地理研究所
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
陈伟强. 干旱区荒漠火烧迹地遥感特征分析研究—以古尔班通古特荒漠火灾为例[D]. 新疆乌鲁木齐. 中国科学院大学,2017.
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