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三工河流域土地开发利用中的无机碳汇强度模拟
邓彩云
学位类型硕士
导师王玉刚
2017-05-01
学位授予单位中国科学院大学
学位授予地点新疆乌鲁木齐
学位专业理学硕士
关键词土地开发利用 灌溉淋溶 无机碳汇强度 节水灌溉措施 影响要素 Land reclamation and land use Irrigation leaching Irrigation carbon sink intens ity Drip irrigation policy Influence elements
摘要The role of terrestrial ecosystems as sources and sinks of C has played a crucial function on the global climate. Changes in land use are among the main human activities affecting the ecosystem carbon cycle. Obviously, it is essential to understand human activities affecting the carbon source and sink to release the increasing of temperature in relation to the global climate change. Accurately quantitative estimation of regional inorganic carbon sink is one of main topic in studies of global carbon cycle. Soil inorganic carbon is increasingly significant contribution to global carbon cycle. Now and next long time, it seeks carbon accumulation in the process of water cycle as one part of ―missing sink‖. But, inorganic carbon sink as dissolved part is a long-been-neglected phenomenon of the transfer and sequestration of dissolved inorganic carbon in the process of oasis development because of specific water resource consumption of inland river in arid zone.This study was conducted to quantify the contribution of land use in arid areas to regional carbon cycle in a typical inland river watershed, named Sangong River watershed in arid of the northwest of China, based on the data of simulated irrigation of soil columns and collected leaching solutions at irrigated landscapes in the process of land reclamation and utilization in the study area. Furthermore, land use change and amount of water consumed in irrigated landscape types were analyzed based on data from remote sensing image, land use, and water resources combined with field investigation. The results showed the following: (1). Oasis agricultural landscape, especially farmland dominates the region of Sangong River watershed, exploitation of land resources in area of becoming irrigated farmland expanded was from upper to lower of the watershed, and from middle to around of it. Land-use change was mainly characterized by the increasing multiplicity and fragmentation from 1958 to 2015. There have been persistent changes both spatially and temporally, resulting in 55% of the total area experiencing transitional changes among the land cover types. The general trend observed in the study area implied a loss of grassland and shrub land cover and an increase in cultivated areas. Land exploitation as socioeconomic processes are the major divers for land-use change.(2) The values of leaching inorganic carbon content and sink intensity were significantly difference under various cropland types in changes of irrigated condition. In flood irrigated condition, dissolved inorganic carbon content: planted forest < vegetable land< corn land< melon land < sunflower land < cotton land< wheat land< rice land< oil plant land;the values of leaching inorganic carbon sink intensity for various cropland types:cotton land (22 g C m-2yr-1) > corn land (19 g C m-2yr-1) , orchard land (18 g C m-2yr-1),forest nurseries land (17 g C m-2yr-1), winter wheat land (17 g C m-2yr-1), > melon land (13g C m-2yr-1) > planted forest belt land (10 g C m-2yr-1) , rice land 10 g C m-2yr-1) > oil plant land (5 g C m-2yr-1). In drip irrigated condition, dissolved inorganic carbon content:vegetable land < corn land< melon land< planted forest < sunflower land< cotton land
其他摘要陆地生态系统碳平衡在全球变化中起着至关重要的作用,土地利用变化是人类活动影响生态系统碳循环的直接因素之一。因此,在全球变化背景下,认识人为活动作用引起的碳源汇效应是增汇减排的前提。其中,准确估算区域无机碳汇的数量是当前碳循环的一个重点内容。干旱区无机碳循环在全球碳循环过程中的贡献日益显著。水循环过程中碳的聚积是解答全球碳汇不平衡的一个重要课题。然而,干旱区水资源耗散的特殊性与土地开发利用进程中可溶性无机碳汇效应,却一直被忽略。本研究以干旱区典型内陆河流域——三工河流域为研究对象,结合土地开发利用进程中的淋溶灌溉原位和模拟实验数据结果,同时结合遥感影像、土地利用和水资源数据,获得区域土地利用和灌溉景观灌水量特征,量化并模拟了该区域在土地开发利用过程中的无机碳汇强度。结果表明:(1)三工河流域绿洲农田区的开发演变趋势为沿河流上游向下游扩张,中心向四周扩张。1958—2015 年期间,区域长期土地利用变化主要为景观的破碎化和多样性的增加。无论是时间还是空间上,持续的土地利用变化导致 55%土地发生景观间的转变。总体表现为草地和灌木林地的减少和耕地面积的增加。土地开垦是主导区域景观格局变化的驱动力。(2)不同作物间,灌溉淋溶无机碳的含量和强度不同。在漫灌条件下,不同作物淋溶无机碳的含量为:ρ退耕林<ρ菜地<ρ玉米<ρ瓜类<ρ大葵<ρ棉花<ρ小麦<ρ水稻<ρ油料;其强度为:棉花地(23 g C m-2yr-1)>玉米地(19 g C m-2yr-1),果园(17 g C m-2yr-1),苗圃(17g C m-2yr-1),冬麦(17 g C m-2yr-1)>制种瓜地(13 g C m-2yr-1)>林带>菜地和水稻田(10 g C m-2yr-1)>瓜地>春麦地>油料地(5 g C m-2yr-1)(P<0.05)。在滴灌条件下,不同作物淋溶无机碳的含量为:ρ菜地<ρ玉米<ρ瓜类<ρ退耕林<ρ大葵<ρ棉花<ρ小麦<ρ水稻<ρ油料;淋溶无机碳强度果园和苗圃最大,玉米地和瓜地最小。(3)三工河流域多年平均无机碳汇强度为 20 g C m-2yr-1,流域多年平均总无机碳汇量为 4722 T C yr-1。阜北灌区 1961—2015 年淋溶无机碳汇强度介于 13~24 g Cm-2yr-1,平均值为 17.5 g C m-2yr-1。且随着土地开发利用进程的推进,流域和灌区无机碳汇强度呈先增加后减小的变化趋势。其中,流域淋溶无机碳汇强度最小年约为最大年的 60%,灌区最大无机碳汇强度约为最小无机碳汇强度的 2 倍。1961—2015 年间,流域无机碳汇总量最大年约为最小年的 3.5 倍,灌区淋溶无机碳年总量增加了近3 倍。(4)气象因素、灌溉制度、作物种植结构和土地开垦年限等相互作用影响了淋溶无机碳汇强度。节水灌溉之后,流域和灌区的无机碳汇强度和总量均有所减少。研究结果证实,在水资源数量一定的条件下,若调整种植结构,高新节水面积达(92%),则流域无机碳汇强度可达 21.2 g C m-2yr-1,区域无机碳汇总量可达 7160 T C。总得来说,干旱区农业土地开发利用过程中依然有可观的无机碳汇数量。
学科领域生态学
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.xjlas.org/handle/365004/14866
专题研究系统_荒漠环境研究室
作者单位中国科学院新疆生态与地理研究所
第一作者单位中国科学院新疆生态与地理研究所
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
邓彩云. 三工河流域土地开发利用中的无机碳汇强度模拟[D]. 新疆乌鲁木齐. 中国科学院大学,2017.
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