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莫索湾免灌溉防护林稳定性研究
丁改改
学位类型硕士
导师蒋进
2017-05-01
学位授予单位中国科学院大学
学位授予地点新疆乌鲁木齐
学位专业工程硕士
关键词莫索湾 人工梭梭林 土壤理化性质 物种多样性 林分结构 稳定性 Mosuowan Haloxylon ammodendronplantation chemical and physical properties of soil species diversity stand structure stability
摘要In this study, we choosen the typical area Mosuowan, which was the arid-semi arid desert-Oasis Transitional Zone as the study area, and shelterbelt system composed by four forests were research objects, including three planted forests that used snow-sand dressing afforestation, harvesting afforestation and autumn irrigation afforestation in 1984 years, and the other was natural vegetation zone with the constructive species of Haloxylon Ammodendron, Tamarix chinensis Lour, Reaumuria songarica (Pall.) Maxim and Calligonum mongolicum Turcz. Using principal component analysis (PCA) and stability degree index ( SDI ) to evaluate the stability through investigating and analysing the soil quality and species composition and diversity and forest structure, with a view to providing technical support for the irrigation-free afforestation in the desert area of north Xinjiang.Results showed that: Soil particle diameter of snow-sand dressing forest, which is located in windward slope, were more larger, with on clay particles distribution. And the other three forests were smaller with a little clay. There were no salinization in three planted forests, and all belong to alkaline soil; soil water content in four forests were natural vegetation >harvesting forest > irrigation forest > snow-sand dressing forest, and it was divided into three period, which were hydrate phase,filtration period and stability period, according to different seasons.The distribution of vegetation and species diversity were influenced by soil water content, electrical conductivity and soil pH, also, soil biological crusts and soil particle diameter were factors. The species diversity tend to be stable when soil water content was more than 8.0 %, and declined with the soil pH over 9.0.The proportion of lower age class (Ⅰ-Ⅳ)in snow-sand dressing forest,harvesting forest and irrigation forest were 0.85:1, 1.2:1 and 1.2:1, respectively. That means the three planted forests have the good capacity for natural regeneration. And all age classes distributed, meaning they have formed uneven multi-storied mixed forest community through their own natural regeneration, it was conducive to the stability of the forests. The shelter forest system in Mosuowan is in a stable development through the comprehensive evaluation, and the stability in three planted forests were irrigation forest > harvesting forest > snow-sand dressing forest. The survival of Haloxylon ammodendron and seeding, the average plant height and canopy, density, species diversity, soil water content and biological crust coverage were the main factors for stability.
其他摘要本研究以干旱-半干旱荒漠-绿洲过渡带典型区域莫索湾为研究区,以 1984年采用积雪-客沙造林、径流集水造林和秋灌造林三种方式种植的人工梭梭林,与梭梭-柽柳-沙拐枣-红砂建群种群落的自然植被带共同构成的防护体系为研究对象,通过对防护林土壤状况、物种组成及多样性和林分结构调查,采用主成分分析法和稳定度指数法,对该区防护林进行稳定性评价,以期为北疆荒漠地区免灌溉造林提供技术支持。结果表明:位于迎风坡的积雪-客沙林土壤颗粒较粗,且无粘粒分布,自然植被带、集水固沙林和秋灌固沙林颗粒均较小,含部分粘粒;人工梭梭林均无盐渍化现象,属于碱性土壤;土壤含水量表现为自然植被带>集水固沙林>秋灌固沙林>积雪-客沙林,根据季节可划分为补水期、失水期和稳定期。共调查到植物 39 种,其中 26 种常见种,13 种偶见种。根据重要值,积雪-客沙林中狭果鹤虱(Lappula semiglabra)、弯曲四齿芥(Tetracme recurvata)和刺沙蓬(Salsola ruthenica)是优势种;自然植被带以卷果涩荠(Malcolmiascorpioides)、弯曲四齿芥(Tetracme recurvata)为主要优势种;集水固沙林以卷果涩荠(Malcolmia scorpioides)和滨藜(Atriplex patens)为绝对优势种,秋灌固沙林以东方虫实(Corispermum orientale Lam)为绝对优势种。积雪-客沙林和自然植被带物种丰富度指数和多样性指数均较高,植被多度和盖度较低,人工林与此相反。防护林各林地植被的分布和多样性受到土壤水分、电导率和土壤 pH影响较大,同时结皮的发育和土壤粒径具有影响,当土壤含水量> 8.0% 时,物种多样性趋于稳定,同时,土壤 pH >9.0 时,物种多样性明显降低。人工梭梭林中,低龄级(Ⅰ-Ⅳ龄级)梭梭与高龄级(Ⅴ和Ⅵ龄级)梭梭比例分别为:积雪-客沙林 0.85:1,集水固沙林和秋灌固沙林均为 1.2:1,说明人工林有一定的自然更新能力。各龄级梭梭均有分布,说明人工林通过自我更新已经形成异龄复层混交林,有利于人工林的稳定性。通过主成分分析法和稳定度指数法,两种方法所评价的强稳定性和中稳定性样方数总和占总样方数的比例分别为 67%和 75%,说明防护林总体处于稳定发展阶段。三种固沙林稳定性由强到弱依次为秋灌固沙林>集水固沙林>积雪-客沙林。由主成分分析的特征根和因子载荷得到:初始种植梭梭存活率、幼苗存活率、梭梭平均株高、冠幅、密度、林下草本植物多样性、土壤含水量和生物结皮盖度是影响稳定性最主要的因素。
学科领域环境工程
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.xjlas.org/handle/365004/14867
专题研究系统_荒漠环境研究室
作者单位中国科学院新疆生态与地理研究所
第一作者单位中国科学院新疆生态与地理研究所
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丁改改. 莫索湾免灌溉防护林稳定性研究[D]. 新疆乌鲁木齐. 中国科学院大学,2017.
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